Guide to the Center for Columbia River History Oral Histories
1998-2000

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Results

Overview of the Collection

Creator: Center for Columbia River History
Title: Center for Columbia River History Oral Histories
Dates: 1998-2000 ( inclusive )
Quantity: 289 audio-cassette tapes, analog.
Location of Collection: Service copies of audio-cassette tapes and transcripts are available in the Oregon Historical Society Research Library. Some transcripts, or partial transcripts, available on the Center for Columbia River History website. Location of originals: Held by the Oregon Historical Society.
Collection Number: SR 2700.1
Summary: This collection documents social, political, economic, scientific, and technological changes in the Columbia River Basin since the building of large federal hydroelectric dams began in the 1930s. The collection adds significantly to Columbia Basin history through its focus on dissent regarding Columbia River dams, and the varied impacts of dam building to communities in the basin. It is composed of one large project, Columbia River Dissenters, conducted by the Oregon Historical Society in partnership with the Center for Columbia River History, and five smaller projects conducted from Center for Columbia River History offices and through Portland State University. The smaller projects document changes in representative communities within the basin: Camas, Washington; Cottage Grove, Oregon; Columbia Slough, Oregon; Umatilla, Oregon; Sandpoint, Idaho. The community histories were part of a web exhibit project using the collected oral histories, primary documents and photographs. Biographical and subject specific interviews were collected on audio cassette tape between 1998 and 2000, and all have been transcribed save some of the interviews from the Cottage Grove and Camas projects.
Repository: Oregon Historical Society
Research Library

1200 SW Park Avenue
Portland, Oregon 97205
Phone: 503-306-5240
Fax: 503-219-2040
E-mail: libreference@ohs.org


Historical Note

In 1997, the Center for Columbia River History (CCRH), a regional consortium of the Washington State Historical Society, Washington State University, and Portland State University received funding from the U.S. Department of Education for the Columbia River Basin Project (CRBP). The Center for Columbia River History promotes broad public discussions about Columbia River Basin History and its connection to the present. To do so, the organization applies critical historical methodology, engages directly with Columbia River Basin communities, and through special projects, creates educational public history products on-line, in print, and through public educational programs.

The CCRH Columbia River Basin Project was a three-pronged project that included two oral history components. The first was through the Columbia River Dissenter's Project at the oral history office in the Oregon Historical Society Research Library. The second was through collecting oral histories to create community history web exhibits at the offices of the Center for Columbia River History. The third prong of the CRBP, a curriculum project conducted through Stevenson High School, did not focus on oral history.

The Oregon Historical Society component of the Columbia River Basin Project produced 59 interviews. The Columbia River Dissenters Project focused on groups and individuals who organized and acted in opposition to or with a different vision of management of the Columbia River than officials such as the Army Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. OHS staff member Clark Hansen, directed by oral historian Dr. James Strassmaier, interviewed key individuals who contributed to the shaping of policies that have had and continue to have enormous effect on the region. Research assistants from Portland State University, Dannette Rowe and Tania Hyatt, contributed to the project through their work in the oral history office at the Oregon Historical Society.

The Columbia Communities Project through the Center for Columbia River History office focused on the histories of eight selected communities on the Columbia River: Camas, Washington (7 interviews); Columbia Basin Native Fishery; Columbia Slough, Oregon (23 interviews), Cottage Grove, Oregon (11 interviews); Crewport, Washington; Moses Lake, Washington; Sandpoint, Idaho (4 interviews); Umatilla, Oregon (14 interviews). The project explored how communities - whether defined by work, family, culture, persistence, or place - were impacted by dam building from the mid-to-late twentieth century. The 59 interviews conducted for the Camas, Columbia Slough, Cottage Grove, Umatilla, and Sandpoint Community History Projects are housed at the Oregon Historical Society Research Library. Additional interviews conducted for Moses Lake, Washington and Sandpoint, Idaho in an earlier phase (1996 NEH grant) of the project are held at appropriate repositories in Washington State and Idaho. Those collected after funding by the Department of Education in 1997 are held at the Oregon Historical Society. Interviews collected for Crewport, Washington are held by Yakima Valley Community.

Interviews for the Camas, Columbia Slough, Cottage Grove, Umatilla, and Sandpoint Community History web sites were collected by Center for Columbia River History staff, graduate students, volunteers, and Portland State University students. Kathy Tucker was responsible for conducting the majority of interviews for the Camas project, and she assisted Katrine Barber in collecting interviews for the Cottage Grove and Sandpoint projects. Donna Sinclair was responsible for collecting the majority of interviews for the Umatilla project and for collecting and directing (with Katrine Barber) student interviewers in the Columbia Slough project. Individual interviewers are identified in this finding aid.

Content Description

Half of the collection is represented by the interviews collected at the Oregon Historical Society for the Columbia Dissenters project. The remaining interviews are represented by the community history projects: Camas, Washington; Cottage Grove, Oregon; Columbia Slough, Oregon; Umatilla, Oregon; and Sandpoint, Idaho. Interviews were conducted on 60-minute analog audio tapes and are part of the Oregon Historical Society Research Library Sound Recording Collection. Some project materials, including printed portions of the associated web sites, are included in the collection.

Use of the Collection

Alternative Forms Available :  

Transcripts and some audio clips are available on the Center for Columbia River History web site, Community History section

Restrictions on Access :  

The collection is open to the public. Patrons may listen to service copies during library hours in the Oregon Historical Society Research Library. Transcripts are also available. Some transcripts are available on the Internet on the Center for Columbia River History Web Site; however, others are only available for public viewing in the Oregon Historical Society Research Library. Some restrictions to individual interviews may apply. When applicable, restrictions are noted for individual interviews.

Restrictions on Use :  

For audio reproduction and information on publication rights, contact the Oregon Historical Society Research Library. OHS owns all rights to the interviews, unless otherwise noted through narrator restriction.

Copyright Statement: The Oregon Historical Society owns copyright to the interviews conducted in this project. Some restrictions may apply to individual interviews.

Preferred Citation :  

Center for Columbia River History Oral History Collection, 2700.1, Series Title, SR number, Tape number, Side number, Transcript page number, Oregon Historical Society Research Library

Administrative Information

Arrangement :

Series List:

A. Columbia River Dissenters Project. SR 2700-2703, 2706-2743, 2745-2749, 2780-2791.

B. Camas, Washington, Community History Project. SR 2773 - 2773.7.

C. Columbia Slough, Oregon, Community History Project. SR 2772 - 2772.23.

D. Cottage Grove, Oregon, Community History Project. SR 2351, 2353, 2354, 2358, 2360-2366.

E. Sandpoint, Idaho, Community History Project. SR 2352, 2355, 2356, 2359.

F. Umatilla, Oregon, Community History Project. SR 2771 - 2771.15.

Custodial History :  

Interview tapes and transcripts from the community history project were donated to the Oregon Historical Society by the Center for Columbia River History. Copyright release for the Oregon Historical Society was obtained by individual interviewers. The Oregon Historical Society collected interviews for the Columbia River Dissenters project from individual narrators.

Acquisition Information :  

The Center for Columbia River History donated interview tapes from the individual community history projects in 2001, 2002, and 2003.

Future Additions :  

A Labor on the Columbia River project is in process and some interviews have been completed. An associated Northwest Power Planning Council Project, partially funded through this grant, is nearly completed.

Processing Note :  

When the Oregon Historical Society began conducting interviews for the Columbia River Dissenters project, the tapes were assigned series numbers beginning with 2700; however, some numbers are out of sequence. The numbering system has since changed so that the Camas, Columbia Slough, and Umatilla community history projects received numbers with decimal points, allowing the tapes from the project to be housed together.

Service copies for the Columbia River Dissenters project were made at the Oregon Historical Society. Some of the tapes received for the Columbia Communities projects had service copies with them. Some tapes were duplicated at the Oregon Historical Society. Transcription for the Dissenter's project was completed through paid transcribers and through volunteer assistance. Transcription for the community history projects was completed by individual interviewers or through volunteer Melissa Williams' assistance. Transcription was not completed for all of the interviews from Cottage Grove and Camas. However, partial transcripts are available for many of the interviews and all web pages using excerpts from interviews have been printed and filed with the collection.

Separated Materials :  

A National Endowment for the Humanities grant to the Center for Columbia River History funded interviews conducted in 1996 in Moses Lake, Washington. These interviews were used in the model community history Moses Lake web exhibit on the CCRH web site, and are housed at the Adam East Art Center and Museum in Moses Lake. Additional interviews collected for the Sandpoint, Idaho, Community History web exhibit are housed at the Idaho Historical Society and the Bonner County Historical Society.

An associated Northwest Power Planning Council Project, funded partially through this grant, is housed at the Oregon Historical Society. A Labor on the Columbia River project, funded partially by this grant, is in process.

Bibliography :  

    For associated bibliographies see the Center for Columbia River History web site.


Detailed Description of the Collection

Series A::  Columbia River Dissenters

59 Interviews (207 cassette tapes). 2700-2703, 2706-2743, 2745-2749, 2780-2791.

Container(s)
Description
cassette
2700 Ed Chaney interview by Clark Hansen , 1998-05
10 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 178 pages.Biography and Description: Ed Chaney resides in Eagle, Idaho. He is president of Chinook Northwest, Inc., and founder and director of Northwest Resource Information Center, Inc.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1998-05
Family background; youth and work experiences; Rolla, Missouri; St. Louis, Missouri; working for the B & O Railroad in East St. Louis; Southwest Missouri State University; Indiana Department of Natural Resources.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1998-05
Work as an information specialist for the Oregon Fish Commission; commercial and sport salmon fishery; Indian fishing; Columbia River dams; John Day Dam; fish ladders and nitrogen supersaturation; salmon burial by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Don Holme; Jim Galbraith; Tom McCall; Bob Schoning; gag order; breach of confidentiality by the Oregonian; National Wildlife Federation (NWF); Washington D.C.
2701 Pat Ford interview by Clark Hansen , 1998-05
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 47 pages.Biography and Description: Pat Ford was born in Lincoln, Nebraska in 1948 and moved to Idaho Falls, Idaho in 1951. She attended Columbia College in New York City from 1965-1969. In 1977 she joined the Board of Directors of the Idaho Conservation League (ICL) becoming executive director in February 1979. Pat Ford left ICL from 1984-1987 and worked as a freelance writer, mainly for High Country News, and as editor from 1990-91. She returned to ICL from June-October 1987. She has also served as interim executive director and Idaho field representative for the Save Our Wild Salmon Coalition.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1998-05
Family background; youth; conservation; Idaho Falls; Snake River; Idaho Conservation League; Frank Church Wilderness (Central Idaho); Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); Idaho Power Company; Utah Power and Light; Ed Chaney; Northwest Power Act; Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); Salmon restoration; Endangered Species Act; High Country News; Save our Wild Salmon Coalition (SOS); Ed Chaney.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1998-05
Fish restoration; sustainable living; Lower Snake River Dams; John Day Dam; Hanford Reach; downstream flows; funding and river users; Senator Gorton, the Army Corps of Engineers, and John Day Dam; cost estimates; Boldt Decision; Native American Treaty rights; Salmon oriented organizations; SOS; hatcheries; subsidies; Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; litigation; political support.
2702 Wendy Wilson interview by Clark Hansen , 1998-05
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each):analog. Transcript, 46 pages.Biography and Description: Wendy Wilson was born in 1956 in Madison, Wisconsin. She replaced Pat Ford as Executive Director of the Idaho Conservation League and later became involved with Idaho Rivers United, an environmental group concerned with the protection of salmon and other conservation issues related to river use.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1998-05
Youth; Boise, Idaho; Idaho Conservation League; salmon; McClure Wilderness Bill; Idaho Salmon & Steelhead Unlimited (ISSU); Idaho Wildlife Federation; Idaho mining; 1872 Mining Act and claims; Idaho Power Company; Public Utility Regulatory Purposes Act; Friends of the Payette; J. R. Simplot; dam proposal; Wayne & Gertrude Sutton; State Protected Rivers Program; State Comprehensive Water Planning Act; Wild & Scenic Rivers Act; Senator Larry Craig; Steve Symms; State's Rights & federal government; environmental coalitions; sport fishing groups; Northwest Power Planning Council; Northwest Power Act.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1998-05
Ed Chaney; Reed Burkholder; lower Snake River dams; emergency draw-down; Todd Maddock and Mike Field; National Marine Fishery Service; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; incidental take permits; Endangered Species Act; Judge Marsh; litigation; John Day Dam; dam removal; hatcheries; fish barging; financial responsibility; subsidies.
2703 Cort Conley interview by Clark Hansen , 1998-05
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 55 pages.Biography and Description: Cort Conley was born in 1944 in Oakland, California. He earned a bachelors degree and law degree from the University of California Berkeley in 1972, then began working on Salmon River with Wilderness Encounters. He has worked as a boatman and packer along the Snake River, and has written a number of works about Idaho, including Idaho for the Curious, a guide book and a history of the Middle Fork of the Salmon River. He has been involved with the Idaho Outfitters and Guides Association and has also worked as a river guide.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1998-05
Youth; University of California Berkeley; growing up in Berkeley; Active Conservation Tactics (ACT); Wild Rivers Idaho; Middle Fork of the Salmon River; Hells Canyon; writing books about Idaho and river history; Snake River; hydropower development; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); Bureau of Reclamation; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Dworshak Dam; Frank Church; River Outfitters; Hells Canyon management; U.S.D.A. Forest Service; recreation boom; jet boats; environmental degradation; fishery in Hells Canyon; erosion; management challenges in Hells Canyon; powerboats; politics.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1998-05
Salmon River; Frank Church; River of No Return Wilderness Area; Middle Fork of the Salmon River; "Dirty" camps; jet boat intrusion; Idaho Outfitters and Guides Association; powerboating permits; private land development; scenic easements; Wild and Scenic Rivers Act; public lands - development; special use permits; Norm Guth; back to Salmon River; camping rules; toilet waste; water quality degradation; Forest Service politics and mismanagement; Idaho Wilderness Act; boater and environmental interaction; National Marine Fisheries Service; salmon; dam removal and drawdown; clearcutting; watershed mismanagement; salmon restoration; pessimism.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1998-05
Dam removal and drawdown; clearcutting; watershed mismanagement; salmon restoration; pessimism regarding salmon's future; barging; hatcheries; logging reductions; forest fires; controlled burns; watershed restoration; Larry Craig; logging restrictions (needed); road-building moratorium in National Forests; scenic easements.
2706 Michele DeHart interview by Clark Hansen , 1998-12
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 57 pages.Biography and Description: Michele DeHart grew up in southern California and moved to eastern Washington in 1968. She obtained a degree in Fishery Biology from the University of Washington, and began working with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service in 1973. At the time of this interview, Michele DeHart was a fish biologist, advocate and activist, working as Fish Passage Manager of the Fish Passage Center in Portland, Oregon.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1998-12
Family background; youth; education and interest in fish biology; working for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; U.S. v. Washington; Boldt Decision; Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC) and the Pacific Northwest Basin Commission; National Marine Fisheries Service and mid-Columbia public utility districts; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) and the Northwest Power Act; Columbia River system, salmon, dams, and the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC).
Tape 2 Contents: , 1998-12
Personal philosophy and worldview; salmon runs, hydropower and economic development; Fish Passage Center, the Northwest Power Planning Council, the Northwest Power Act, and the Pacific Northwest River Basin Commission; Endangered Species Act and Snake River dams; public perception and policy.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1998-12
Lower Snake River dams; economics of salmon protection and restoration; International salmon conflicts—United States and Canada; hatchery fish and wild fish; irrigation on the lower Snake River; salmon biology and habitat; Northwest Power Planning Council; personal challenges regarding work on Columbia River issues.
2707 Frank Amato interview by Clark Hansen , 1998-11
2 sound Cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each):analog. Transcript, 47 pages.Biography and Description: Frank Amato's ancestors (Italian and German) came to the Pacific Northwest on the Oregon Trail around 1900. He was born in Portland, Oregon in 1942 and attended Central Catholic High School and the University of Portland. At the time of this interview, Frank Amato was the founder and director of Amato Publications, Inc. publishers of the periodical Salmon Trout Steelheaders.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1998-11
Family background; Catholic education; University of Portland; Vietnam War; The Salmon Trout Steelheader; fishing; Kellogg Creek (Milwaukie, Oregon); Fish Creek; catch and release; Federation of Fly Fishing; Columbia River; Chile; Steelhead; hatchery propagation; differences between salmon and steelhead; Deschutes River; hydro development of the Columbia River and environmental change in the Columbia River Basin; grazing; commercial fishing; hatcheries; spring Chinook; Coho salmon; Sockeye salmon; Pink salmon; Chum salmon; Boldt Decision; Willapa Bay, Washington; establishing commercial seasons; Snake River dams; Northwest Steelheaders; Inland Empire Fly Fishers; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Hells Canyon Dam; Lower Granite Dam; sturgeon; Columbia River estuary; shad; smelt.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1998-11
Lower Deschutes River land sale; Doug Robertson; Lower Deschutes River Club; Chuck Voss; Association of Northwest Steelheaders; Victor Atiyeh; state acquisition; turning point (politically) for fish protection; Indian fishing rights; Boldt Decision - disagreement over allocation; Northwest Power Act; Northwest Power Planning Council; Bill Bakke; Endangered Species Act; Willa Nelson; non-native species in the Columbia River system; riparian management; stream rehabilitation; intermittent stream salmon spawning; Ed Chaney; Conflicts between commercial and sport fishers; conflicts between sport fishers and Indian fishers; dip net fishing; gill netting; dam removal; hatcheries; subsidies; Steve Phelps; genetics; salmon restoration and economics; optimism for the future.
2708 Chuck Williams interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-01
7 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 203 pages.Biography and Description: Chuck Williams, a writer and photographer of Caucasian and Cascade Indian descent, owned a photography gallery in The Dalles, Oregon at the time of this interview. He is author of Bridge of the Gods: A Return to the Columbia Gorge, published by Friends of the Earth in 1980. He has been an activist with Friends of the Earth and during the 1980s he fought against National Scenic Area designation for the Columbia River Gorge, and worked to have the Gorge designated a National Park. Williams is enrolled with the Grande Ronde Tribe.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-01
Family background; Cascade Indians; Chief Tumove [sp?]; Indian Mary (Kalliah); Grand Ronde Treaty; Yakama Reservation; Warm Springs Reservation; Franz Lake; Wapato; Columbia River Gorge; Racism; Skamania, Washington; Jim Walker; youth; being a "beatnik" in the San Francisco, California Bay area; work as an engineer for NASA; work for Boeing; Seattle, Washington; Peace Corps; work with Mexican youth in El Paso, Texas; studying art and camping; David Brower; Friends of the Earth; National Parks.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-01
Efforts to save the Columbia River Gorge; Klickitat County Public Utility District; proposed dam building on the White Salmon River; Friends of the Gorge; National Park Service; Land and Water Conservation Fund; Cecil Andrus; The National Parks and Conservation Association; Wilderness Society; Michael Frohman; Nancy Russell; USDA Forest Service; Jim Weaver; Sierra Club; Mark Hatfield; Robert Packwood; Emily Barlow; Tom Imason; Columbia Gorge Coalition; Golden Gate National Recreation Area; Don Clark; Thousand Friends of Oregon; development in the Columbia Gorge; Robert Duncan; Ron Wyden; clear-cut logging; National Park Service Bureau of Outdoor Recreation; Chuck Cushman; making the Gorge a National Recreation versus Scenic Area; Columbia Gorge Environmental Center.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-01
Gail Ackerman; Borden Beck; 1984 Wilderness bills; "fake environmentalists"; Dan Evans; subdivisions in the Gorge; Sid Morrison; Northwest Power Planning Council; Trust for Public Lands; Arctic National Wildlife Refuge; Kate McCarthy; Vera Defoe; Nanny Warren; John Yeon; Hood River Valley; Dave Talbot; Victor Atiyeh; Pat Amedeo; Ed Divine; Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission; Jack Donaldson; racism; Tim Wapato; Wilbur Johnson; exclusionary politics; tribal interests; Bonneville Power Administration; US Army Corps of Engineers; Multnomah County Commissions.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-01
Beverly Stein; Louie Pitt; S.D.S. Lumber Company; Clearcut logging in the Columbia River Gorge; Absence of accountability in Gorge; Special management areas; land acquisition (lack of); final legislation to create the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area; The Packwood bill; The Friends of the Gorge bill; LCDC inspired zoning in the Gorge; problems with the "Friends" bill; deed restrictions; General management areas; Washington Department of Natural Resources; Clearcut logging; Urban Exempted Areas; Special Management Areas; tributary protection; Columbia River Gorge Commission; Sierra Club; Dennis and Bonnie White; direct action; Jackson Browne; Heathman Hotel; USDA Forest Service; Art DeFalt; Hood River Valley; Patty McCray; Brian Baird; Camas, Washington; Jim Bloomquist; National Wildlife Federation; Robert Packwood; facing the Reagan challenges.
Tape 5 Contents: , 1999-01
Ron Arnold; killing the governor's bill; Duncan Creek property, Skamania County, Washington; catch and release fishing; Bonneville Dam; Mitchell Act; hatcheries; hydropower development in the Columbia Basin and the role of Tribes; Boldt Decision; Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission; appropriating salmon; embezzlement scandal at Friends of the Gorge; Yakama Indian Nation; Yakama-Klickitat hatchery project; Department of Energy; Earth Conservation Corps; Salmon Corps; Celilo Falls; Reopening the gallery; The Oregonian; Exposing the Gorge's situation; Portland.
Tape 6 Contents: , 1999-01
ESA listing of fish and fish runs; salmon fisheries, dam removal - Bonneville Dam, The Dalles Dam, John Day Dam; Bea House; Kathy Durbin, Cascadia Times; High Country News; salmon cycles—ocean—migration; barging salmon; Salmon Corps; Native American youth; AmeriCorps; Conforth Cattle Ranch; Deschutes River restoration; Wild Horse Creek restoration; Nez Perce Reservation sturgeon hatchery; Shoban (Shoshone Bannock) restoration; organizational change in environmental organizations—grass roots - bureaucrats; Sierra Club; Thousand Friends of Oregon; grass roots politics; David Brower; White Salmon River and tributaries of Columbia River; American Rivers; Columbia Gorge Audubon Society; opposition to wind power in the Gorge; White Salmon River; clearcutting by SDS Lumber; protests.
Tape 7 Contents: , 1999-01
Final thoughts on Gorge fight; saving Lyle Point; houses in the Gorge; Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife refuge; Franz Lake NWR; Pierce Ranch NWR; Wells Island Trust for Public Lands; Santa Monica Recreation Area; Pauline Anderson; Multnomah County.
2709 Eugene Rosolie interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-02, 1999-03
5 sound cassettes (ca.60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 105 pages.Biography and Description: Eugene Rosolie was born in 1949 and raised in the state of New York. He joined the U.S. Marine Corps during the Vietnam War, served one tour stateside, and moved to Oregon in the early 1970s. At the time of this interview, Eugene Rosolie was the Director of the Green Power Program for Northwest Environmental Advocates. He worked with utilities in stimulating development of renewable energy sources to replace coal and nuclear power.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-02, 1999-03
Family background; youth; growing up in Brooklyn and Queens, New York; gangs; Vietnam; U.S. Marine Corps; Parris Island; Camp Pendleton; becoming a forward artillery observer; military service in Hawaii; living on Long Island, New York; moving to Pacific Northwest.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-02, 1999-03
Mt. Angel College (Salem, Oregon) and Portland State University (PSU); involvement in the environmental movement; PacifiCorp; Lloyd Marbet; Coalition for Safe Power; Bob Cobb; Trojan Nuclear Power Plant; opposition to nuclear power; radioactive contamination in the Columbia River; Hanford, Washington - burying nuclear waste; nuclear weapons; Willapa Bay, Washington—radioactive contamination; Willamette River; Washington Department of Ecology; National Estuary Program; Port of Portland; Neil Goldschmidt; Northwest Environmental Advocates; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS).
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-02, 1999-03
Opposition to Trojan; Trojan Decommissioning Alliance; civil disobedience (non-violent); being put on trial for criminal trespass; subsequent civil disobedience and trials; Columbia County District Court; Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania; Oregon's ban on nuclear power plant construction; closing Trojan; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); nuclear power - safety; Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Portland General Electric (PGE); Hanford nuclear reactor closure; Freedom of Information Act; efforts to close the Centralia, Washington plant; shifting focus to pollution in the Columbia River; River Watch; National Estuary Program; Port of Portland; Columbia River channel deepening and toxic sediments.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-02, 1999-03
Opposition to the National Estuary Program on the Columbia River; publishing "The Columbia River Troubled Waters" (map) through Northwest Environmental Advocates; Columbia and Willamette River Watch Program; Columbia River channel deepening; Port of Portland; alternative energy sources; Northwest power grid; PacifiCorp; Bonneville Power Administration; decentralizing and diversifying power supplies.
Tape 5 Contents: , 1999-02, 1999-03
Endangered Species Act listing for fish; decline of salmon and other endangered fish; estuary degradation; Portland's combined sewer overflow (CSO); dike removal along the Lower Columbia; estuary restoration; riverine health and pollution; river politics; full-cost accounting and the effects of globalization; assessing costs and values and assigning blame; regulations, tariffs and taxes.
2710 Bill Evans interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-04
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 54 pages.Biography and Description: Bill Evans, a member of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, was born in 1921, a member of the Moses Tribe of Indians from Moses Lake, Washington. At the time of this interview, he operated Chief Evans, Inc. including Wapato Firewood and Evans Orchard.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Family background; youth; Moses tribe (from Moses Lake, Washington); Colville Indian Reservation; apple orchards and Mexican labor; Columbia Basin dams; Lake Chelan; Bureau of Indian Affairs; salmon; Indian schooling; St. Mary's Mission School; working on Chief Joseph and Rocky Reach Dams; Grand Coulee Dam; irrigation; salmon restoration.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-04
Dams and salmon; well water farming; Clyde Ballard; land appropriation; casino; environmentalists; Republicans; Indians; So Happys; fishing lifestyle; thoughts on the future of the Columbia basin.
2711 Allen Isaacson interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-04
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each):analog. Transcript, 48 pages.Biography and Description: Allen Isaacson was a supervisor hydrologist for the USDA Forest Service in the Idaho Panhandle. He called attention to the consequences of over-cutting on the watershed that ended his Forest Service career (1966-86). Isaacson went on to consulting and teaching at Spokane Community College.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Family background; youth; living in Mullan Idaho; working for the USDA Forest Service; living around Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; work as hydrologist and fish biologist for the Forest Service; the Zena Creek Blowout on the South Fork of the Salmon River (landslide); clearcutting; opinions regarding the Forest Service; slash-burning; monoculture planting; forestry management; flooding; watershed degradation; funding and the Reagan Administration; adjudication conflict; overcutting in Idaho's Panhandle—mid-1980s; leaving the Forest Service.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-04
Forest Watch; Inland Empire Public Lands Group; Barry Rosenberg; Sarah Folger; pressure from environmental coalitions; Native Americans and environmental management; leaving the Forest Service; sustained yield; working with the regional office in Missoula, Montana; subsidized logging; logging in British Columbia; certification for sustainable harvested wood; teaching at Spokane Community College (Water Resource Department); fishery issues; breaching the lower Snake River dams; fighting construction of the Dworshak Dam; anti-American sentiment by Canadians related to Grand Coulee Dam; environmental restoration; salmon restoration; genetic conservation.
2712 John Osborn interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-04
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each):analog. Transcript, 37 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Dr. Osborn was a staff physician with the Veterans Medical Center in Spokane, Washington, and conservation chair for the Sierra Club's Northern Rockies chapter. Osborn has worked as a firefighter and in recreation for the USDA Forest Service. He also founded the Spokane Resident Physicians Action League (now The Lands Council) and served on the boards of the Idaho Conservation League and the Idaho Wildlife Federation. Osborn is the author, with Derrick Jensen & George Draffan, of a history of the 1864 Northern Pacific railroad land grant: Railroads & Clearcuts (1995).
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Youth; ski-racing; Boise, Idaho; USDA Forest Service fire fighter; medical school; Northern Pacific Railroad land grant; clearcutting; Weyerhaeuser; Plum Creek; Maine's north woods.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-04
Medical ethics; geriatrics; HIV & AIDS; veterans; solving environmental problems with a medical model; Regional Ethics Network of Eastern Washington and North Idaho; Spokane River; Environmental History Tour.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-04
Toxic metals in the upper Columbia River system; mining; Coeur d'Alene and Spokane Rivers; lead; Cataldo Mission; Bunker Hill lead complex; Gulf resources; Senator McClure; Franklin Fong; Lands Council.
2713 Nina Bell interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-06
5 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes):analog. Transcript, 67 pages.Biography and Description: Nina Bell was raised in Seattle and went to Portland to attend Reed College, later attending Lewis & Clark Law School. At the time of this interview, she was executive director of Northwest Environmental Advocates, a position held since 1988. By implementing Clean Water Act programs and spearheading litigation through NWEA, she has represented environmental interests in regional and national negotiations.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-06
Family background and youth; energy policy activism and the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); Columbia River degradation; Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs).
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-06
Clean Water Act and TMDLs; Columbia Estuary and the National Estuary Program; upstream-downstream relationships; lower Willamette Superfund site; Multnomah Channel; combined sewer overflows in Portland, Oregon.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-06
Combined sewer overflows; Clean Water Act and TMDLs; Anti-degradation policy.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-06
National Estuary Program and TMDLs; environmental toxins; organizational relationships with "friends", "foes" and members/financial backers.
Tape 5 Contents: , 1999-06
Education and curriculum ideas; final thoughts regarding the future.
2714 Kent Martin interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-05
5 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each):analog. Transcript, 66 pages.Biography and Description: Kent Martin, a gill-net fisherman from Skamokawa, Washington, was born in 1944 and began fishing when he was 14 years old. Martin attended Central Washington State College in Ellensburg, Washington, and double-majored in philosophy and anthropology. Martin continued his education at Memorial University of Newfoundland and obtained his Masters degree in Marine Anthropology. Martin's wife, Irene, is author of the book Legacy and Testament: The Story of Columbia River Gillnetters, which includes a history of Kent Martin's family.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-05
Family background and Skamokawa, Washington; youth and Columbia River fishing; Point Adams Packing Company; Lower Columbia River College; Central Washington State University and marine anthropology; fish barging; Salmon Oversight Committee; Salmon Summit; Shadow Summit; William "Bill" Bakke; Rufus Woods and Grand Coulee Dam; Columbia River history—salmon canning—gill netting; fishing—conflicts—technology—equipment (seines, fish traps, fish wheels); salmon decline; habitat degradation; over-fishing; Alaska; recreation; poverty; fishers' organizations; initiative petitions.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-05
Alaska fishing; over-fishing; irrigation; justice; demonizing commercial fishing; coastal economies versus the I-5 corridor; service jobs versus living wage jobs; loss of salmon runs on the Columbia; Fishermen's Union.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-05
Salmon restoration and rural-urban conflict; fisheries conflict; views toward Native American fishers; sportfishers; logging; Canada; politics; Frank Amato; Bill Bakke; slack water (reservoirs); dam turbines; Bonneville Power Administration; fish farms; international trade liberalization and treaties.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-05
Reflection on contemporary salmon fishing issues and thoughts on the future.
2715 Wade and Tex Troutman interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-04
2 sound cassettes (ca.60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 64 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, the Troutmans were orchardists and farmers in the Columbia Basin of Washington State.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Family background (Troutman); youth; Bridgeport, Washington; Colville Indian Reservation tribes; Badger Mountain root gathering; homesteading; the Great Depression; Chief Joseph Dam; Grand Coulee Dam; World War II; serving in Germany; farming in Bridgeport, Washington; Janice's family background; Pateros, Washington; youth; changes in Bridgeport after World War II; Wade's early years—dam construction in Bridgeport; support for Chief Joseph Dam; irrigation; Washington State Department of Ecology; moratorium on pumping water from the mainstem Columbia River; planting the family orchard; power from the Chelan Dam.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-04
Trends toward larger farms (corporate farms); politics of water use; competition with corporate farms; economies of scale (agriculture); Latino migrant labor; Colville Tribes; Bureau of Indian Affairs; problems with co-ops; the disappearing family farm; earning money through environmental stewardship.
2716 Charles Ray interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-07
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each):Transcript, 104 pages.Biography and Description: Charles Ray first came to Idaho in1976 to work for the USDA Forest Service. He spearheaded the Wild Salmon Project for Idaho Rivers United, a nonprofit organization that stimulates grassroots attention on state and federal water policy issues.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-07
Family background; youth; Johnson City, Tennessee; University of Tennessee, Institute of Agriculture; forestry; Vietnam era; Tellico Dam; Tennessee Valley Authority; snail darter; Endangered Species Act; Howard Baker; Bob Marshall Wilderness Area, Idaho; Garden Valley, Idaho; USDA Forest Service; Boise Cascade; helicopter logging; working as an industrial electrician; Portland, Oregon; work at the Swan Island Shipyard; work at Honeywell Industrial Controls; McCall, Idaho; Wendy Wilson; Friends of the Payette (River); steelhead; wild salmon; Bear Valley Creek; Idaho Rivers United; advocating against gold mining on the Clearwater River; Sockeye salmon; salmon habits; closing Idaho's salmon fishery; Idaho Plan (seasonal drawdowns); Ed Chaney; Columbia River system—nutrient regeneration from salmon; lower Snake River dams; upper Snake River dams; John Day Dam.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-07
Barge traffic on the Snake River and Columbia River; politics of the salmon crisis; conservatism and intolerance in Idaho; Idaho Steelhead and Salmon Unlimited; Trout Unlimited; Save our Wild Salmon Coalition; lower Snake River Dams; Reed Buckholder; evolution of IRU support toward dam removal; Tax Payers for Common Sense; Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); National Marine Fisheries Service; USDA Forest Service; Downstream Migration Management Planning; Three Sovereigns; the role of the judiciary; Indian treaties and saving salmon; Boldt Decision; Nez Perce reintroduction of Coho to Clearwater River; Missoula Floods; Bonneville Floods; resiliency of salmon; hatcheries; genetic "contamination" from hatchery fish.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-07
Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); Three Sovereigns; National Marine Fisheries Service; Roland Smitten; barging salmon; Idaho Water Users Association; subsidies; water rights; farming; navigation and dam removal; politics surrounding dam removal (in Idaho); US Army Corps of Engineers; Endangered Species Act; fish mortalities; 1995 Jeopardy ruling (by NMFS) and mitigation; incidental take permits; conflicting federal commitments and jurisdictions; IRU; dam decommissioning; dam removal—costs and economic compensation; Idaho Power; Bonneville Power Administration; aluminum companies.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-07
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS); biological opinions; Idaho Department of Fish and Game versus NMFS; Phil Batt; Malcolm Marsh; Shoshone Bannock; treaties with Nez Perce, Warm Springs, Yakama, Umatilla, and Shoshone Bannock; Clean Water Act; Endangered Species Act; Lower Snake River Compensation Plan; Northwest Power Act; Pacific Salmon Treaty; 1994 elections in Idaho; Dirk Kempthorne; "Path" studies; Independent Science Advisory Board; hydropower and green power; increased water temperatures; fishing harvests; fish transportation; controlled spills for downstream migration; optimism for salmon's future.
2717 Walter Butcher interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-10
5 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 89 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Walter Butcher was Professor Emeritus of Agricultural Economics at Washington State University. He specialized in economics of natural resources and the environment and in agricultural development. He has served as a consultant and advisor to several agencies and organizations, including the United States General Accounting Office, the Bonneville Power Administration, the state of Washington, the U. S. Water Resource Council and the U. S. Deptartment of Agriculture.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Youth; southwestern Idaho; farming (irrigation); Snake River; the Great Depression and World War II years; University of Idaho; education; US Department of Agriculture; Washington State University; agricultural price supports and production controls; wheat farming economics in Idaho and Washington; farm management and production economics; Columbia Basin Irrigation Project; irrigation and water allocation; Bureau of Reclamation; dams; large scale irrigation; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Yakima Basin; Norm Whittlesey.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10
Assessment of the first half of the Columbia Basin Project (CBIP); Economic Research Service; criticism of the CBIP; failure to provide irrigation and electrification to Tribes (especially Colville); Water rights; General Accounting Office (GAO); including the full opportunity costs of water used for irrigation; Washington Department of Ecology.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-10
Irrigation; conservation (water); subsidies; enforcing conservation measures; water marketing; conflicts over federal treaties (with Indian Tribes) and contracts (with irrigators); comparison of dry-land wheat farming and irrigated wheat farming; energy forecasting; Pacific Northwest Regional Commission; Bonneville Power Administration; Private Utilities; Public Utility Districts (PUDs); Direct Service Industries (DSIs); Northwest Power Act; nuclear power; Hydrothermal Planning Council; energy crisis (1970s).
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-10
Northwest Energy Policy Project; Mike Katz; Dixie Lee Ray; General Accounting Office; George Hinneman; electricity rates; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); Seattle Power and Light; bond defaults.
Tape 5 Contents: , 1999-10
Optimism toward future.
2718 Lorraine Bodi interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-08
7 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 114 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Lorraine Bodi was a natural resource attorney and senior fish and wildlife advisor for the Bonneville Power Administration. Previously, she was co-director of the American Rivers office in Seattle, Washington and former counsel to the National Marine Fisheries Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-08
Youth; George Washington Law School; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency; Clean Water Act; Washington, D.C.; moving to Seattle, Washington; Endangered Species Act; Northwest Power Act; Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act; National Marine Fisheries Service; dam re-licensing; Federal Power Act; Department of Commerce; National Environmental Policy Act; High Mountain Sheep Dam; Anadromous Fish Conservation Act; Boldt Decision; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Dam re-licensing; Rock Island Dam; Fish passage; Indian Tribes; Environmental Impact Statement; Chelan Public Utility District; Mid-Columbia Proceedings (before FERC); Hanford; juvenile fish mortality; Hanford Reach; in-stream flows; Terry Thatcher; work for NMFS; negotiating settlements; role of courts; judges; Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; equitable treatment for salmon; institutional resistance to change.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-08
National Marine Fisheries Service; American Rivers; Judy Johansen; Bonneville Power Administration; Endangered Species Act; Bruce Lovelin; Save our Wild Salmon Coalition.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-08
National Marine Fisheries Servide; salmon recovery goals; improving fish passage (at Daws); Snake River seasonal dam drawdown (Andrus Plan); increasing instream flows; Independent Science Advisory Board; science and politics; 4 Hs (hydropower, hatcheries, harvest and habitat); USDA Forest Service; riparian zone protection; setting performance standards; Endangered Species Act; Clean Water Act; National Anadromous Fish Conservation Areas; evolution of views regarding hatcheries; Jim Lichatowich; Hanford Reach; mitigation for downstream migration; surface by-pass; Wells Dam; fish transportation; delayed fish mortality; straying salmon; prioritizing spending; private dams; Idaho Power; Bureau of Reclamation; water marketing; irrigation; All H paper; alternatives to dam breaching on the lower Snake; US Army Corps of Engineers EIS for Snake River.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-08
Dam removal; habitat improvements; political resistance to dam removal; compensation and past governmental commitments; conflicting commitments; privatizing the Bonneville Power Administration.
Tape 5 Contents: , 1999-08
Re-licensing of the North Umpqua Hydroelectric Project; Low-Impact Hydropower Institute; American Rivers; For the Sake of the Salmon; Northwest Renewal Resources Center; Sustainable Fisheries Foundation; National Marine Fisheries Service; becoming an advisor for the BPA; Judy Johansen; Jack Robertson; All H Paper; decision-making and implementation; the "federal caucus"; public input; deadlines; thoughts on changing jobs; dam breaching; funding habitat restoration; Columbia River Alliance; selective fishing; Boldt Decision (U.S. v. Oregon).
Tape 6 Contents: , 1999-08
BPA's scientific interpretations; salmon mortality; harvest levels; drawdowns; National Marine Fisheries Service; dam removal on the lower Snake River; lack of political leadership in region; Northwest Power Planning Council; private power companies; Skagit River; the future of salmon in the Columbia River basin.
2719 Reed Burkholder interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-07
5 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 114 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of the interview, Reed Burkholder lived in Boise, Idaho and was a practicing Mennonite, piano teacher and an advocate for salmon and dam removal on the lower Snake River.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-07
Family background; youth; Snake River—hunting—fishing; education; Salmon River; fish traps; University of Idaho; salmon hatcheries; Rapid River; Little Salmon River; Chinook salmon; bible study; Hyde Park Mennonite Church; dams and declining salmon runs; stewardship and treatment of the environment in the Christian bible; electricity; Snake River dams.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-07
Cancer wife's death; Bonneville Power Administration (BPA)Port of Lewiston, Idaho; subsidies; Army Corps of Engineers; Inland Waterways Trust Fund; irrigation and lower Snake River; dams and salmon; Bureau of Reclamation (BOR); farmers and crops; flood control (and lack of); fish ladders; reservoirs as thermal blocks.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-07
Mennonite church; Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); Idaho Rivers United; Pat Ford; Charles Ray; Mitchell Sanchotena; Sierra Club Salmon Work Group; Wendy Wilson; spillway crest draw; silt, toxic sediments and dredging; Potlatch toxic release; dioxins; dam breaching and Columbia River Pollution; support for dam breaching on the lower Snake River; Army Corps of Engineers; Jonathan Brinkman; The Oregonian; natural river draw down; Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); Mike Field; environmental organizations.
Tapes 4 & 5 Contents: , 1999-07
Dam breaching; Oregon Statesman Journal; environmental groups; Justin Hayes; grass roots democracy; Save Our Wild Salmon Coalition (SOS); hydropower markets; aluminum companies; farmers; Inland Empires Waterway Association; subsidies; Lewiston, Idaho; Snake River dams—economics of dam breaching.
2720 J.W. "Bud" Forrester interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-06
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 50 pages.Biography and Description: Bud Forrester was born April 3, 1914 in Portland Oregon. He graduated from Marshfield High School in Coos Bay, Oregon and attended Oregon State University. He was the owner of the North Bend News from 1945 to1950; editor of the East Oregonian from 1951 to 1973 and the Daily Astorian from 1973 to 1988.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-06
Family background; youth; Eagle Creek; Copper; Chitina, Alaska; Copper River; Mosier Tunnel, Oregon; Cascade Locks, Oregon; Part Angeles, Washington; Coos Bay Lumber Company; journalist—The Oregonian—The East Oregonian; Rufus Woods; Grand Coulee Dam; development of the Columbia River; fishing; fish wheels; Celilo; Seufert Company; Cascade Locks; slack water navigation; Lewiston, Idaho; dam construction; fish passage; Hells Canyon; Idaho Power Company; Dick Neuberger; Al Ullman; Justice William O. Douglas; potatoes; Simplot; floods; Columbia River and agriculture.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-06
Irrigation; Pendleton, Oregon; closing of Bumble Bee Plant in Astoria, Oregon; Daily Astorian; declining fisheries; Burlington Northern Railroad; coal export plan; Tongue Point; Port of Portland; Columbia River dredging; Chinook, Washington; Young's Bay, Oregon; river bar pilots; aluminum plants & Columbia River Estuaries; fluoride; Hanford; Trojan; Community fears of fallout; Umatilla Ordnance depot; Pendleton, Oregon; AMAX Aluminum Plan in Warrenton, Oregon; Northwest Power Planning Council; salmon; Lower Snake River Dams; Non-point source pollution.
2721 Gilbert and Helen Giles interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-10
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 34 pages.Biography and Description: Gilbert Giles was born in Bickleton, Washington in 1910. In the 1930s, Giles was a school teacher near the town of Okanogan, Washington and was principal at Lyle High School (1945-52). He has lived in proximity of the Colville Indians throughout his life.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Family background; youth; Native American/ Indian influences; Celilo Falls; Indian relationships; salmon health in the Columbia River; Colville-area Indians and the Grand Coulee dam; dam-building on the Columbia River.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10
Education and the need for change; Johnny Jackson and Lyle Point; political philosophy; teaching critical thinking.
2722 Walter and Marilyn Ericksen interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-10
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 89 pages.Biography and Description: Walter Ericksen was born in 1918 in Wasco County. He was an orchardist and a leader of the Wasco County Fruit and Produce League. Ericksen helped chart pollution and smoke from the Harvey Aluminum Company through aerial photography over a 21-year period.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Family backgrounds; youth; The Dalles, Oregon; farming; produce; irrigation; Native American - Celilo Falls; Fifteenth Air Force; World War II; Foggia, Italy; Wasco County Agricultural Stabilization Conservation Service (the "County Committee"); federal farm programs; farm payments; truck gardening cherries; orchards; Harvey Aluminum; crop failures; dams, fish, spotted owls and clearcuts; Hanford, WA; the Green run; coyote hunting.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10
Harvey Aluminum Plant; monitoring emissions; Arden Shenker; Judge Kilkenny; smokestack photographs; fluoride; community reaction to litigation; fish mortality; Harvey becomes Martin Marietta Aluminum Co.; settlement; orchards.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-10
Fluoride; community reaction to litigation; fish mortality; Harvey becomes Martin Marietta Aluminum Co.; settlement; orchards; irrigation; aluminum companies and subsidies; groundwater pollution; The Dalles water supply; Superfund; Environmental Protection Agency; Department of Environmental Quality.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-10
Groundwater pollution; The Dalles water supply; Superfund; Environmental Protection Agency; Department of Environmental Quality; Columbia River pollution; The Dalles development.
2723 Floyd Harvey interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-10
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each):analog. Transcript, 45 pages.Biography and Description: Floyd Harvey was born in 1925 and grew up in Lewiston, Idaho. After serving in World War II, Harvey returned to the Pacific Northwest and studied Business Administration and Foreign Trade at Washington State College in Pullman, Washington. In 1958, Harvey started a river tourism business near the Hells Canyon area. In 1964, he lobbied against private utilities and public power agencies over the proposed construction of the High Mountain Sheep Dam near the confluence of the Snake and Salmon Rivers.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Family background; Lewiston, Idaho; Hells Canyon; Native Americans; fishing; dams; World War II; Hells Canyon and tourism; Snake River dams; High Mountain Sheep Dam; Hells Canyon National Recreation Area; Hells Canyon Dam.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10
High Mountain Sheep Dam; Hells Canyon National Recreation Area; environmental organizations; Idaho Power; Idaho politics; Hells Canyon Moratorium Bill; Senate Interior Committee; Senator Robert Packwood; Potlatch pollution; resistance to Hells Canyon Dam; business—arson—loss of.
2724 Thomas Kovalicky interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-10
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 106 pages.Biography and Description: Thomas Kovalicky, a U.S. Army veteran, graduated from the University of Montana in 1961 with a Bachelor of Science in Forestry. In 1962 he began a career with the USDA Forest Service. Kovalicky retired in 1991 after having served nine years as Forest Supervisor for the Nez Perce National Forest in Grangeville, Idaho. He served on the Idaho Outfitters and Guides Licensing Board, was a national officer in the Society of American Foresters, a board member for the Idaho Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and director of the National Smokejumpers Association and has been Director of Idaho Rivers United. Kovalicky has written and published 30 articles concerning resource management and employee motivation.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Youth; World War II; polio; University of Montana - Forestry Program; Rachel Carson - Silent Spring; Green River Valley, Wyoming; DDT; Litigation against the USDA Forest Service; Forest Service leadership; corporate pressure; subsidies; logging; sustained yield; National Forest Management Act; yield forecasting; Wilderness Act; wilderness; recreation; Rock Springs, Wyoming; Bridger Wilderness; Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area; grazing; Sierra Club; mining; Sawtooth National Recreation Area; Stanley, Idaho; comparison of the United States Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture; comparison of USDI National Park Service and USDA Forest Service.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10
Comparison continued; relationships with co-workers in the Forest Service; Inter-Agency budget conflicts; Endangered Species Act; Senior Executive Service; Max Peterson; Dale Robertson; Reaganism—Reagan Administration; James Watt; Public Land Grants and large corporate in-holdings; subsidies; destructive land management; Nez Perce National Forest; water quality; roads; balancing extractive industry with recreation; conflicts with the Regional Forester.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-10
Balancing extractive industry with recreation; conflicts with the Regional Forester; Clinton Administration—road building moratorium; Environmental Impact Statements; working with Native Americans; ranger district closings and consolidation; computers; losing local control in Forest Service districts; centralizing power of computer networks; relationships with other Forest Service employees for environmental ethics; silviculture; John Muma; Jack Ward Thomas; Ecosystem management plans.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-10
Retirement; Idaho Outfitters and Guide Licensing Board; Idaho Fish and Wildlife Foundation Board; Arthur Carhart Institute; riparian zone management; environmental groups; public relations; Mike Dombeck; rural communities (changes in); Cove and Mallard timber sales; Sunbird Conference.
2725 Dan Rohlf interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-08, 1999-09
5 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 113 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Dan Rohlf was Instructor of Law and Director of the Pacific Environmental Advocacy Center at Northwestern School of Law at Lewis and Clark College. He received a Bachelor of Arts in Geology from Colorado College and a Juris Doctorate from Stanford University.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-08, 1999-09
Family background; youth; Stanford Law School; The Anadromous Fish Law Memo; Mike Blumm; Lewis & Clark Law School; Endangered Species Act; Columbia River Basin; Bill Bakke; National Marine Fisheries Service; American Fisheries Service; Columbia River Fish ESA listings; Indian Treaties; salmon; fishing.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-08, 1999-09
Economic changes along the lower Columbia River; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; Snake River dams; misinformation regarding dam removal; Northwest Power Act; water budget; fish passage center; Ed Chaney; Columbia-Snake Rivers Main Stem Flow Coalition; Salmon Summit; Mark Hatfield; Section 4(d) of the ESA; Oregon Plan; Snake River drawdown plans; Idaho Power company.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-08, 1999-09
Ed Chaney; Wise Use group meeting in Salmon, Idaho; Bonneville Power Administration; electricity and salmon; nuclear power; Washington Public Power Supply system; salmon expenditure claims; foregone revenue and actual expenditures; Indian Treaty Rights litigation; Slade Gorton; 9th District Court of Appeals; ESA; NMFS; barging litigation; Cecil Andrus; Judge Marsh; salmon recovery.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-08, 1999-09
Judicial activism; Judge Marsh - NMFS 1993 biological opinion regarding Columbia-Snake River salmon; recovery levels and survival levels for species; Biological Requirements Group; standards in the 1995 biological opinion; NMFS; Colville Tribe; Grand Coulee Reservoir; incidental taking; dam removal on the lower Snake River; Ed Chaney; Reed Burkholder; Save our Wild Salmon Coalition.
Tape 5 Contents: , 1999-08, 1999-09
Barging salmon; Judge Marsh; Boldt decision - rationale; tribal treaty rights and the ESA; salmon restoration and the ESA; Northwest Power Act; litigation under the NWPA; Non-Treaty storage agreement; Ed Chaney; BPA; Northwest Power Planning Council; the future of salmon management; Direct Service Industries; federal subsidies; Pacific Environmental Advocacy Center; Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Process.
2726 Russell Jim interview by Michael O'Rourke , 1999-10, 2001-10
6 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 134 pages.Biography and Description: Russell Jim, a member of the Yakama Indian Nation, Washington, grew up in Toppenish, Washington, and attended the Chemawa Indian Boarding School. He and his family have been involved in Native American issues on the Columbia River and he has opposed use of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10, 2001-10
Youth; Toppenish, Washington; Yakama Indian Reservation; boarding school in Chemawa, Oregon; public school in Toppenish; racism; Celix Jim; Dry Creek; fishing; grazing damage to streams and lands; horses; Russell Jim's father; Carlisle University; World War I; Russell Jim's mother; White Swan celebration grounds; chasing horses; Ed Kelly; playing cards; hops harvesting; father's lessons for card dealing; gathering trips in alpine country; camps; childhood.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10, 2001-10
Gathering trips in alpine country; camps; childhood injury; Klickitat River; huckleberries; potatoes; the Toppenish Powwow; the boycott of Toppenish (starting in 1957); the All-Indian rodeo of White Swan; persistent racism; 1946 Enrollment Law.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-10, 2001-10
early years at Dry Creek; horse chasing near Elbow; chasing horses at Seattle Springs; horse chasing injury; depletion of wild horses; cattle grazing; Bureau of Indian Affairs; Ed Quigley; school in Toppenish; work on farms and railroads; fishing at Celilo; selling soda and playing dice (at Celilo).
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-10, 2001-10
Celilo; Salmon Head Beach; Hanford, Washington; John Till; Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project; Brian Baird; contamination; public deception; early years; dating; dancing; tuberculosis; depletion of horses on Yakama lands; cattle grazing—environmental and cultural effects; working for the Soil and Moisture Conservation Office (SMCO); fighting forest fires; BIA; pesticides; serving on the tribal council; BIA code of ethics; fight to keep seat on the Council; tribal sovereignty; meeting his wife.
Tape 5 Contents: , 1999-10, 2001-10
Kiutus Jim Senior; signatory to the loss of Celilo; Enrollment Act of 1946; Robert Jim; Termination resistance; American Indian Bank; Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act; Yakama Loan to Alaskan natives; James Hovis; Indian Reorganization Act of 1934; returning 21,000 acres (Mt. Adams) to Yakama tribe; Roger C.B. Morton; resistance by the Sierra Club Western Outdoors Club; erroneous boundary claims; St. Regis; Plum Creek; clear-cut logging; BIA forest management—surveying and logging; Yakama elections for tribal council.
Tape 6 Contents: , 1999-10, 2001-10
Celilo Falls; traveling; changing relationships between Indians and non-Indians; Otis Shiloh; Chief Island; Matthew Shiloh; Yakama River; dip-net fishing at Celilo Falls; familiar claims to fishing spots; Yakama—connections to the Columbia River and surrounding region; seasonal migrations; intentional burning; Chief Tommy Thompson; Celilo fishery conservation; capitalism.
2727 Norman Whittlesey interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-10
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 46 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Norman Whittlesey was a retired professor, Washington State University, Department of Agricultural Economics. From Colorado State University, he received a Bachelor of Science in 1955, and a Master of Science in Vocational Agriculture, 1960. He received a Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics from Iowa State University in 1964.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Youth; Washington State University; agricultural economics; Columbia Basin Project; The Grand Coulee Dam; irrigation; Bureau of Reclamation; project funding; Columbia Basin Project and conflicts regarding economic feasibility.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10
Testifying in front of the Washington Energy and Budget committee; Helen Summers; backlash from agricultural interests; university pressure; Tub Hansen; speaking out against "bad" water policy; water use from the Grand Coulee; irrigation; water flows and salmon; subsidized agriculture; losing taxpayer money through water diversion and small-scale power production; water spreading.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-10
General observations regarding economic issues related to Columbia River management.
2728 Kenneth Billington interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-01
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 72 pages.Biography and Description: Kenneth Billington was born into a logging family in Sheridan, Oregon. Billington became involved with WPA administration, and then ship building. He remained involved in the issues of public versus private dams on the Columbia River, and was a proponent of public power.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01
Family background and youth; professional life and the Works Progress Administration; Kaiser; Clark County Public Utility District; investor-owned utilities and hydropower from the Columbia River System; Washington Water Power Company and Grand Coulee dam; Senator Clarence Dill; Public Utility Districts; Public Works Administration; Clark County PUD.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-01
Grand Coulee Dam; PUDs; rural electric cooperatives; aluminum companies; Columbia River Basin irrigation; Clark County PUD; dam-building on the mid Columbia River; dam-building on the Snake River.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-01
Nuclear power and Hanford; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); hydro-thermal power; coal power; Pacific Power; power forecasts; Northwest Power Act (creation and passage of); Columbia River Indians and salmon; Northwest Power Planning Council.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-01
Northwest Power Act and Northwest Power Planning Council.
2729 Richard Daugherty interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-01
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 42 pages.Biography and Description: Richard Daugherty's career at WSU spanned 31 years. Before retirement in 1982, he had served as chair of the Department of Anthropology, pioneered new archaeological methods, and served on the boards of nearly every regional, state and national archaeological and historic preservation council.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01
Family background; youth; University of Washington; anthropology; World War II Naval Air Corps; Pacific Northwest archeology; chronological discussion of important archeological finds for the PNW; salvage archeology related to dam construction (Linn Coulee, Marmes Rock Shelter); U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; National Park Service.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-01
Marmes Rock Shelter inundation; government relations with archeologists in the Columbia Basin; Makah Indians; Indians and Indian culture; environmental changes to the Columbia Basin.
2730 Phillip Jensen interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-01
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 91 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Phillip Jensen was the president of Luhr Jensen, Quality Fishing Lures and Accessories in Hood River, Oregon.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01
Family background; Dee, Hood River Valley, Oregon; fishing; Green Point Dam at Parkertown; logging; youth; World War II; anti-Japanese sentiment; family background; education; Harvey Aluminum Plant; Hood River development; Warm Springs Casino; moving to Waldport, Oregon; joining the US Navy; studying economics at University of Oregon; the family fishing lure business; salmon in the Great Lakes; Atlantic salmon.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-01
Influence of Native Americans on non-Indians at Hood River; the salmon crisis; Greg Walden; Oregon Department of Environmental Quality; pesticides in Hood River Basin; distinctions between species of salmon and steelhead; Grand Coulee Dam; US Army Corps of Engineers; development of salmon crisis; saving salmon; Slade Gorton; Gordon Smith; commercial fishing on the Columbia River; Endangered Species Act; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; hatcheries; Mitchell Act; The Dalles Dam; Celilo Falls; Boldt Decision; Indian treaty-rights to fish; Bud Ramsey; Northwest Sport Fishing Industry Association; personal awareness of salmon crisis; Pacific Rivers; Oregon Trout; Bill Bakke.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-01
Dam removal—lower Snake River—dangers; hatchery fish; downstream migration; Bonneville Power Administration; Lower Snake River irrigators; John Day draw down; genetic sanctuaries; US Army Corps of Engineers; Bonneville Power Administration; salmon studies; National Marine Fisheries Service; Will Still; Greg Walden; Gordon Smith; future energy needs; aluminum plants; jobs; costs of salmon restoration; subsidies; evolution of land management; watershed councils; Neal Creer; Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area; Bea House; LCDC.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-01
Interruptible power; globalization; reducing consumption; sport utility vehicles (SUVs); taxes; fish genetics; fish sanctuaries; anadromous preserves; tribes and salmon - responsibilities; future of salmon; his children and grandchildren.
2731 Ted Strong interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-01
6 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each):analog. Transcript, 88 pages.Biography and Description: Ted Strong, a member of the Yakama Indian Nation, was born May 7, 1947. Strong was comptroller for the Yakama Indian Nation and president of the Native American finance Officers Association. He also worked for the Warm Springs Indian Tribe, and managed his own international trade and consulting company. He has served as Executive Director of the Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC) and in 1993, was appointed by President Clinton to the President's Council on Sustainable Development, where he served as the co-chair of the Natural Resources Task Force.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01
Youth—Satus, Washington; parent's allotment; Treaty of 1855; Dawes Act; historical conditions of Yakama Tribe; family life; traditionalism—parents; Roosevelt Elementary School - adjustments to white culture; non-Indian friends at school; Indian Shaker Church—parents were members; comfort level with various religious orientations.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-01
Education—high school; Kennedy assassination—interest in politics; Bureau of Indian Affairs and education; business school in Dallas; marriage to Navajo woman, Alta; work for Navajo Tribe; Atomic Energy Commission, Richland, Washington; BIA, Montana; recruitment by Yakama Tribal Council; high school/college experiences in Washington and Montana; tribal government structure; Strong's position with tribe.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-01
Tribal government structure; finance director for Yakama; tribal natural resource management; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)—management of tribes' timber resources; disputes/lawsuits against BIA; leaving job with Yakama; work for the Warm Springs as financial consultant; Warm Springs economic endeavors—Kah Nee Ta—apparel—radio—insurance; work as Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC) executive director.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-01
Strong's approach to directing CRITFC; David Sohappy; Yakamas' view of CRITFC; CRITFC re-organization; Endangered Species Act; Clean Water Act; relationship between CRITFC & Yakama & other tribes; fishery negotiations—access by Four Treaty Tribes—Yakama—Warm Springs—Umatilla—Nez Perce; distrust of state and federal governments; appointment to presidential task force; final report published as George Bush loses to Clinton; Elizabeth Furse nomination of Strong to President Clinton's Forest Summit (1993); experience at Forest (Timber) Summit.
Tape 5 Contents: , 2000-01
Timber summit; appointment to President's Council on Sustainable Development; Commerce Secretary, Ron Brown; Energy Secretary, Hazel O'Leary; Under Secretary of State, Tim Worth; Katie McGinty; Bill Ruckelshaus; Dr. Jim Baker; Dick Barth; John Platt; response to serving on Council; negotiating with the Bonneville Power Administration for fish money with Katie McGinty; personal experiences—family; leaving CRITFC; joins Delbert Wheeler Construction, 1999; Three Sovereigns Forum; Governor Kitzhaber.
Tape 6 Contents: , 2000-01
Lawsuit; racial/cultural differences between groups; relationships—environmental groups—Oregon Trout—Lori Bodi—American Rivers—John Adams, Nature Conservancy— Michelle Perot, Sierra Club—Jonathon Lash, National Resources Institute—Portland Audubon Society—Bob Dochelt, Pacific Rivers, Washington Rivers; personal perspectives regarding history; meeting wife.
2732 Mark Ufkes interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-01
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 79 pages.Biography and Description: Mark Ufkes, a development economist and educator, grew up in Umatilla, Yakama and Nez Perce Indian Country, and obtained degrees from Washington State University and Harvard University. At the time of this interview, he lived with his family in Seattle, Washington. Earlier, Ufkes worked on international economic development in Asia, Africa and the Middle East. In 1992, he directed efforts to promote private sector investment and trade in five newly-established, culturally based governments in former Soviet Central Asia. In that position, he promoted the use of e-mail and Internet technology to develop a non-profit public service community there. For the four years prior to this interview, he worked on regional Tribal economic development issues in the Northwest. Working closely with tribal communities and the Affiiliated Tribes of the Northwest Economic Development Corporation (ATNI-EDC) Board of Directors, he coordinated the ATNI Revolving Loan Fund (RLF), developed the ATNI Tribal Energy program, and the ATNI-EDC Regional Tourism program. At the time of the interview, Ufkes was guiding Information Technology strategic planning with Northwest Indians.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01
Family background; youth; Hanford Nuclear Reservation; Manhattan Project; plutonium production; Richland, Washington; John F. Kennedy; Columbia River; Cold War; nuclear war; radiation release—accidental—intentional; Richland politics; Cuban Missile Crisis; public access to the Columbia River through Hanford; radioactive contamination; Washington State University (WSU) searching out careers; Columbia River Basin hydropower development.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-01
Salmon mortality; Grand Coulee Dam; fish ladders; nitrogen supersaturation; proposed dam at Asotin; dam removal on the Lower Snake River; boat business opportunity (Hells Canyon); working on international issues; Kennedy School of Government at Harvard; studying natural resource management; Hanford; creating a national park at Hells Canyon; agriculture on the Wahluke slope; collaborative management of natural resources; Hanford Reach salmon fishery; Columbia Park; Doc Hastings; Wild & Scenic River designation; U.S. Fish and Wildlife (USFW); Republicans; proposed Ben Franklin Dam at Hanford Reach; contaminated lands around river; proposed canal and locks through Hanford Reservation; public's perception of dams over time; Saddle Mountain Refuge; Norm Dicks; Patty Murray; U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE); boat tour business; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFS); resource management planning; fishing at Hanford Reach.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-01
Slade Gorton; Richard Steele; Rick Lamont; Lower Columbia Basin Audubon Society; being stigmatized; Fitznear Everhardt (sp?); Arid Lands Ecology Resort; Rattlesnake Mountain; USDOE; Project AIL (sp?); Priest Rapids Dam; salmon spawning; Tribal access to Hanford Reach; Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians Economic Development Commission (ATNI-EDC); Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); salmon restoration; dam removal on the Lower Snake River; salmon and technology; hatcheries; barging; economics & environmental protection; vision for the future.
2733 Dennis and Bonnie White interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-01
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 57 pages. See librarian for restrictions.Biography and Description: Dennis and Bonnie White, residents of Trout Lake Washington, were active with Friends of the White Salmon River, the Columbia Gorge Coalition, and the Columbia Gorge Audubon Society.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01
Dennis's family background and youth; Bonnie's family background and youth; Trout Lake, Washington; White Salmon (WA) hydro project; Public Utility District of Klickitat County Washington; Friends of the White Salmon; U. S. Forest Service - Mt. Adams Ranger District goals—defeat dams—Wild and Scenic River designation—remove the Condit Dam; Chuck Williams; Columbia Gorge Coalition; Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area; PacifiCorp (Pacific Power and Light); White Salmon River—restoring anadromous fishery; American Rivers; Friends of the Earth; Yakama Indian Nation; National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS); Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WA DFW); U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS); Condit Dam—historic fish runs; Katherine Ramsell; Federal Energy regulators Commission (FERC); strategy for dam removal.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-01
Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area designation; Chuck Williams; Friends of the Columbia Gorge; political changes, 1980; US Forest Service; Columbia Gorge Commission; difference between National Park and National Scenic Area status; Nancy Russell; Chuck Williams; Bea House conflict; appropriate development; private property rights; Friends of the White Salmon; Wild and Scenic River designation; Sid Morris; social conflict in the Gorge; gentrification; subverting Darrell Olson's committee; Lyle Point.
2734 Michael Blumm interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-11, 2000-02
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 71 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Michael Blumm was a professor at Lewis and Clark College of Law. He graduated from Williams College and George Washington University Law School. LL.M. He has worked for the President's Council on Environmental Quality, the Center for Natural Areas, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. For several years he edited the Anadromous Fish Law Memo, a periodical analyzing legal and institutional issues involved in preserving and restoring the Pacific Northwest's salmon and steelhead runs.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-11, 2000-02
Family background; youth; Coho salmon in Lake Michigan (hatchery fish from the Columbia River); law school; environmental law; Environmental Protection Act (EPA); Lewis and Clark Law School; Columbia River salmon issues; the Anadromous Fish Law Memo; Clean Water Act (CWA); Northwest Power Act (NPA); Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); power forecasting; nuclear power at hydrothermal energy.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-11, 2000-02
Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); interagency cooperation; Dan Evans; water budget; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE); Snake River; Idaho; Cecil Andrus; dams on the Lower Snake River; Washington; Lewiston Port; dam drawdown; Willa Nelson; Sockeye and Chinook salmon; Endangered Species Act (ESA); conflict over hatchery fish; Canadian salmon; Kettle Falls; Okanogan River; Grand Coulee; Fraser River salmon; hatcheries; 1976 Lower Snake Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan; Yakama; Nez Perce; Hanford Reach fall Chinook; federal funding to improve fish runs; BPA; hydropower; National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS); maintaining the status quo.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-11, 2000-02
NPA; BPA; NWPPC; authority over the Columbia River hydropower system; Lower Snake River dam removal; Port of Lewiston; counting salmon; Dan Evans; Cecil Andrus; seasonal drawdowns; costs associated with maintaining and re-licensing dams; Condit Dam; PacifiCorp; USACE; fish passage at dams; Pelton Dam; Warm Springs Tribes; Pacific Gas and Electric (PGE); irrigation diversions; NMFS; Boeing; Clean Water Act (CWA); water temperature standards for fish; John Kitzhaber; Oregon Plan; NPA; problems with state salmon plans; Indian tribes; ESA; CWA; federal oversight.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-11, 2000-02
National awareness of the salmon crisis; federal subsidies; thoughts on resolving the conflicts; Bonneville Power Administration Fund; Columbia Basin (Northwest) Intertie system; BPA; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) debt; privatizing the BPA; aluminum companies; American Rivers; Nez Perce adjudication ruling in Idaho; tribal issues regarding environmental legislation; NMFS; CWA; ESA; salmon spawning; Indian treaties and tribes as domestic dependent nations; World Court; U.S. Supreme Court.
2735 Terry Thatcher interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-01, 2000-03
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 88 pages.Biography and Description: Terry Thatcher was born in Seattle and raised in Kent Washington. He graduated from Pomona College with a Bachelor of Arts in History, was awarded a Juris Doctorate from Yale Law School in 1977 and received an L.L. M. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1978. From 1978 to 1987 he worked as counsel for the National Wildlife Federation. At the time of this interview, he was Deputy City Attorney for the city of Portland, Oregon, working on water issues environmental affairs, and litigation.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01, 2000-03
Youth; anti-Mormon family stories; Pomona College, California; changes in Green River Valley farms to warehouses; 1960 Howard Hanson Dam—flood control; farms zoned to industry; Fraser River fish hatchery history; fishery history San Juans; Lummi Indians; Sockeye runs on Fraser; Columbia River hatcheries, destruction of Indian Fishery; Endangered Species Act (ESA); late development in West; anadromous fish runs in Columbia River; opposition to dams. Public interest law, Yale Law School; staff attorney National Wildlife Federation (NWF) 1978; move to Eugene Oregon: Mapleton lawsuit; Mark Hatfield timber riders; Les AuCoin; 1982 move NWF to Portland; Derek Bell, University of Oregon; energy work and fish work; Spotted Owl appeals.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-01, 2000-03
Grand Coulee June Hogs salmon; Cadillac Desert; Benefits and burdens of dams; industrial society and the environment; genocide of Native Americans; political struggles; Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); subsidies—direct—indirect; Tongas National Forest; transition; Columbia River economic structures; individualism vs. community well being; Columbia River fisheries crisis—1970s; Northwest Power Act (NWPA); Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC)—enforcement—authority—and fish.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-01, 2000-03
NWPPC—fish program; NWF—Salmon River, Idaho lawsuit; Columbia Basin Protected Areas Program; Federal Energy Regulation Council (FERC); "Power First" Re-licensing issues; Rock Island Dam; Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); NWF vs. FERC; water rights issues on Snake River; Stevens Treaty; Boldt Two decision.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-01, 2000-03
Native American fisheries; usual and accustomed places; compensation; treaties; executive orders; sovereign nation status defined; US v. Washington; hatchery fish and treaty rights; Pelton Dam licensing; NWF work; Ranger Rick magazine; NWF—outreach—fund raising; adversaries—Pacific Power and Light (PP&L)—Bonneville Power Administration (BPA)—electric industry—aluminum industry—fish and wildlife interests; public policy; public interest law movement; pessimistic view, biosphere, global warming, Gaia theory.
2736 George Hinman interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-10
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 38 pages.Biography and Description: George Hinman was born in 1927. He received a Doctor of Science degree in Physics from Carnegie Melon University in 1952 and taught physics at the Carnegie Institute of Technology until 1963. Hinman went to Washington State University as the director of the Nuclear Radiation Center in 1969, and was on the faculty of the Physics Department. In the 1970s, he became involved in environmental and energy issues and joined the Energy Policy Council to forecast energy consumption in the Pacific Northwest. His forecasting showed that the growth rate for energy consumption in the region was much slower than had previously been estimated. Hinman's reports led WPPSS (Washington Public Power Supply System) to review the need for the proposed nuclear power plants, leading to plant termination.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Youth; education and work; Washington State University; Nuclear Radiation Center; Energy Policy Council; Northwest Energy Policy Project; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); energy forecasting; Walter Butcher; Northwest Power Act (NWPA); Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act; Pacific Northwest Regional Commission.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10
Dixie Lee Ray (Governor); General Accounting Office (GAO); radioactive waste at Hanford, Washington; Hanford—storage—leaks—boiling and burping.
2737 Katherine Bohnet and Phyllis Brown interview by Clark Hansen , 1999-04
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 96 pages. See librarian for restrictions.Biography and Description: Katherine Bohnet and Phyllis Brown are dry land farmers in Wilson Creek, Washington. They have been involved in groundwater issues and fought the Bureau of Reclamation over inclusion in Columbia Basin Irrigation Project.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Katherine Bohnet's youth; Wilson Creek, Washington; dryland farming; modern challenges to dryland farming; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Canadian Wheat Board; subsidies; Phyllis Brown's family background; youth; tenant farming (dryland farming); grazing; Soil Conservation Services (SCS); development of dryland farming; fertilizer; deep wells; groundwater; Washington Department of Ecology (WA DOE); water permits; development of Columbia Basin agriculture (Wilson Creek area); Columbia Basin Project (CBP); Bureau of Reclamation (BOR); Grand Coulee; comparison of dryland and irrigated farming; opposition to irrigation (with the CBP); Syphmon (sp?) Tunnel; forceful inclusion into the CBP; fighting to withdraw lands from the CBP; acreage limitations.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-04
George Seller; Kurt Smith; Sam Israel; Columbia Basin Development League; CBP development; violation of due process; Keith Higginson; antagonism by the Wenatchee World and Hugh Blanc; Jim Cole; lobbying; map showing farmers who wanted exemption from the expansion of the CBP; irrigation boosters; Ted Osborne; CH2M Hill; Norm Whittlesey.
Tape 3 Contents: , 1999-04
Washington State University (WSU); Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); water spreading; abandoning the CBP; rising costs; Wenatchee World; water mining; Dan Evans; water permit transfers; WA DOE; deep wells; sewage sludge controversy; Seattle metropolitan government; Wilson Creek; Grant County Health Department; Columbia River Basin issues; dam breaching; railroads; wheat transportation; pesticides.
Tape 4 Contents: , 1999-04
Pesticides—2-4D; Seattle Metro; riparian zone management; Bureau of Land Management (BLM); noxious weeds; Bureau of Reclamation (BOR); Ted Osborne; salmon mitigation—regional financial burden; subsidies.
2738 Wilbur Slockish interview by by Michael O'Rourke , 2000-02
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 44 pages.Biography and Description: Wilbur Slockish, a Native American from the Yakama Indian Nation, was born in Wapato, Washington on September 19, 1944. He has been an activist on fishing and nuclear issues affecting the tribe. At the time of this interview, he was a member of the Hanford Health Effects Sub-committee and has been involved with the Greenpeace, Military Production Network.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-02
Fishing at Celilo Falls; impact of dams on fish/wildlife; industrial pollution of Willamette; Wilbur's fishing protests/arrests on river; David Sohappy; Wilbur's trial (with Sohappy); conviction and imprisonment; release and probation; experience in prison; involvement of tribal council on behalf of defendants; Wilbur's early experiences growing up on reservation; harvesting natural foods; school; discrimination; loss of native language; tribal politics; Wilbur's membership on bi-state water quality board; first awareness of Hanford; diseases among Yakama; Johnny Jackson; mentoring about Hanford/nuclear issues from Arjun Mahkajani the "real Indian"; Military Production Network (MPN); Bill Mitchell; Sue Gordon; MPN and discrimination; Hanford Health Effects Subcommittee (HHES); Madeline Spino (Warm Springs); membership in HHES.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-02
Work with Greenpeace; Hanford issues; Moses Squeoch; Russell Jim and Yakama Hanford program; nuclear waste and Yakama Reservation; Joe Campbell; Grace Thorpe; Paul Rodarte; proposed waste storage—McDermitt Reservation; Jerry Meninick—conflict with Russell Jim; health studies at Hanford; fish consumption study; Native American exposures at uranium mines; long-term nuclear waste disposal; Wilbur's final comments about his commitment to work on behalf of future generations.
2739 Robert W. Schoning interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-03
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 66 pages.Biography and Description: Robert Schoning was born Sept. 29, 1923 in Seattle Washington and was educated at the University of Washington. He was a biologist who worked for the Oregon Fish Commission and was Director National Marine Fisheries Service. He retired in 1986.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-03
Family background; youth; fish biology; Columbia River fishing; salmon; canneries; U.S. Marine Corps; Oregon Fish Commission; Portland, Oregon; dip net fishery at Celilo Falls; dams; Mitchell Act; Fraser River system salmon; salmon as indicator species; stream clearance projects; splash dams; sluices; logging; stream degradation; hatcheries; Lake Michigan Coho; Livingston Stone; salmon population decline; fish mortality studies; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-03
Columbia River salmon issues; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; U.S. Bureau of Fisheries; Willis Rich; Oregon Fish commission; Idaho and upriver fisheries; Boldt decision; Celilo Falls; Stevens Treaty of 1855; Judge Belloni; drift rights on the lower Columbia River; snagging; Native and non-native fish harvests; fishing zones on the lower Columbia River; U.S. v. Oregon; Sohappy v. Smith; usual & accustomed places; The Dalles Dam; Indian drift netting; compensation at Celilo; daily landings.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-03
Seufert Cannery; fish wheels; hatcheries; downstream dam passage and smolt mortality; Marine Mammal Protection Act; National Marine Fishery Service (NMFS); whales and porpoises; Two Hundred Mile Act; International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission; oceanic conditions.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-03
Oceanic conditions; salmon behavior in the Pacific Ocean; Canada; Columbia River salmon; salmon genetics; dam modifications; fishers.
2740 Peter Huhtala interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-03
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 65 pages.Biography and Description: Peter Huhtala is from Astoria, Oregon, with strong ties to fishing communities along the West Coast. Formerly program director for Pacific Marine Conservation Council (PMCC), he has coordinated the Rockfish Rebuilding Campaign since its 2001 launching. He serves on the Executive Committee of the MFCN, and is President of Columbia Riverkeepers and Executive Director of Columbia Deepening Opposition Group. Peter's diverse expertise includes journalism, public speaking and political strategy.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-03
Family background; Finnish and Swedish heritage; Astoria, Oregon; early years, woodworking; fishing; pilot boats; activism; gillnetting ban (Oregon); commercial fishing; employment opportunities in Astoria; canneries; Chinese; population decline in Astoria; gillnetting; fish wheels & fish traps; horse seining; tuna fishing; environmentally friendly alternatives (salmon fishing); smelt; Clatsop & Chinook Indians; Richard Nixon; environmental awareness in the 1960s; nuclear power activism; Stanford University.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-03
Nuclear Power Activism; Stanford University; Trojan and Diablo Canyon reactors; playing music; woodworking; mortgage banking; living in California; channel deepening in the Columbia River; Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST); U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE); jetty construction and channel deepening on the Lower Columbia River; Port of Astoria; regional port planning; Salmon for All; Ecology Museum of the Columbia; Columbia Deepening opposition group (CDOG); National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS); Endangered Species Act (ESA); Ron Wyden; Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC).
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-03
Northwest Environmental Advocates (NWEA); Nina Bell; Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); environmental Organizations against channel deepening; environmental justice; Civil Rights Act; Clean Water Act; Funding; personal survival; Columbia Channel Coalition; Columbia River Alliance; problems with sedimentation resulting from dam removal on the Lower Snake River; salmon and the Columbia River estuary; Estuarian Turbidity Maximum (ETM); sediment capping; tern predation; Willapa Bay, Washington; oyster contamination; radioactive pollution and point source pollution; Hanford.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-03
Channel deepening—economics; Port of Portland; Superfund; Willamette River cleanup; tiered deepening; Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL); dredging; salmon migrations; entrainment; dredge disposal; Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act.
2741 Robert Eaton interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-February-02 through 2000-04
5 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 111 pages.Biography and Description: Robert Eaton was born in Dayton, Washington in 1945, and grew up in Parkrose and Portland, Oregon. He has acted as Executive Director for the Pacific Marine Conservation Council, president for the Port of Astoria Commission, and is former Executive Director of Salmon for All.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-February-02 through 2000-04
Family background; youth; Portland, Oregon; Benson Technical High School; Portland State University; Portland Community College; U. S. Army; University of Oregon; Park Rose area; Columbia River; Astoria, Oregon; Oregon Parks and Recreation; Woodburn, Oregon; Up with People; Comprehensive Employment Training Act (CETA); Astoria Chamber of Commerce—becoming director—membership; Executive Director for Salmon for All (SFA)—background; Salmon Summit; Bumblebee Corporation; anti-gillnetting initiatives; commercial fishing on Lower Columbia River—history; territorial disputes over fishing; drift rights; Oregon Fish Commission; Columbia River Compact; Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union (CRFPU); Northwest Gill-netters Association (NGA); unifying factors among fishers; overfishing; SFA membership; Endangered Species Act (ESA).
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-February-02 through 2000-04
Endangered Species Act (ESA); Alaskan fishery; relationship between sport and commercial fishers; decline of fisheries—widening blame; Grand Coulee Dam; June hogs (Chinook); Mitchell Act; hatcheries; left & right hand fish; neglecting tribal needs; (hatchery) supplementation; genetics; hatcheries as mitigation (not subsidies); Snake River dams; Columbia River dams; river channel dredging; wetland destruction; downstream smolt migration; fish transportation; smolt mortality; Magnusen Act; Northwest Power Act (NPA); Pacific Salmon Treaty; ESA; oceanic conditions; Bill Bakke; Oregon Trout; Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); Three Sovereigns approach; Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); Save Our Wild Salmon Coalition (SOS); Northwest Environmental Advocates (NWEA); Northwest Energy Act Coalition (NWEAC); Boldt Decision; reorganization SFA; commercial fishers—bias in Washington; Weyerhaeuser; salmon farming.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-February-02 through 2000-04
Puget Sound; Sid Snyder; Ted Hallock; Angus Duncan; lower Columbia River salmon business plan; net pen hatcheries; imprinting; Clatsop Economic Development Council; Tern predation at Rice Island; barging; appointment process of the NWPPC; Neil Goldschmidt; Barbara Roberts; John Kitzhaber; upriver policy people; gillnet fishing; National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS); Salmon Summit; Bruce Lovelin; direct service industries (DSI); Northwest Power Council Coalition (NWPCC); Lewiston, Idaho; Idaho Power; SOS coalition; anti-gillnetting initiative (OR - #8, 1992) spring Chinook; Sierra Club; Jim Baker; fishing ghost towns on the lower Columbia; Port Commissioner, Astoria, Oregon; recreating natural conditions in the Columbia River Basin.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-February-02 through 2000-04
Boldt Decision; Belloni Decision; fishing at Buoy 10; dip net fishing at Willamette Falls; Willamette River Superfund; dredging; NMFS; estuary degradation; bio-accumulation; Pacific Marine Conservation Council (PMCC); lower river political representation; NWPPC; SOS; bias toward sportfishers; reflections, past and future; communication with other river-based interests; SFA agendas; genetic (salmon) sanctuaries; water law; salmon restoration; problems with status quo management.
Tape 5 Contents: , 2000-February-02 through 2000-04
Natural resource industry commonalities—farming and fishing; small business owners—decision-making; Pacific Salmon Treaty; SFA—policies supported; fisheries conditions; NWPPC; irrigation; tribal plans—supplementation—hatcheries; hatchery fish—genetics; June Hogs; Grand Coulee; Oregon water law; water conflicts worldwide; weather; salmon migration patterns; salmon conservation methods.
2742 Phillip Meyer interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-04
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 96 pages.Biography and Description: Phillip Meyer was born in 1941 at Telegraph Creek, British Columbia and studied economics and political science at the University of Victoria. He received a Masters degree in Economics from the University of California at Santa Barbara. In the mid 1970s, Meyer was Chief Social Science Advisor on Habitat Conservation for the Canadian Department of Fisheries in British Columbia and the Yukon. In 1981 Meyer started a private consulting firm and did studies for the Bureau of Indian Affairs on energy analysis. He has also worked on mediation between groups.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-04
Family background; youth; Telegraph Creek, Talton Reservation, British Columbia; Salt Spring Island, BC; Victoria, BC; University of California Santa Barbara; Rugby; Ventura, California; Canadian Department of Fishers on the West Coast; salmon statistics; declining salmon populations; comparison of Fraser and Columbia River system management; Grand Coulee; hydroelectric power; energy forecasting; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); BC Hydro; Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); misinformation.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-04
Douglas Treaties on Vancouver Island; First Nations; hatcheries; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA); National Marine Fisheries Service; Dan Evans; statute of limitations and the value of salmon; Native Americans; Shellfish Case; Washington coast; Boldt Decision; Ted Strong; spiritual value of salmon; expert witness in Native American litigation.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-04
Salmon value; compensation—Wishram—Colville; Stevens Treaty; Celilo Falls; Equal opportunity; environmentalism; upriver/downriver relationships; prejudice against natives; California's Central Valley; salmon decline—factors; oceanic conditions; dams; aluminum companies; electricity rates; biased technical reports; dam removal; Shoshone Bannock; Stevens Treaty; Treaty of Fort Bridger; Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); Warm Springs Indian Reservation; work with indigenous people and groups; litigation.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-04
Elwah Dam removal; Pacific Power & Light; CRITFC; Shoshone Bannock; Lower Snake River; dam breaching vs. non-breaching; compensation to tribes; Sohappy Salmon Bust and Salmonscam trial; sovereignty of tribal lands; Dawes Act; Belloni Court; sppeal to World Court.
2743 William Skylstad interview by Jim Strassmaier , 2000-05
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 43 pages.Biography and Description: Bishop William Skylstad was born in Omak, Washington and grew up in the Methow Valley. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1960 and became Bishop of Yakima in 1977. In 1990, he became Bishop, Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, Washington. Bishop Skylstad has acted as an advocate for the Columbia River, and was one of twelve bishops from the Pacific Northwest and Canada who joined together to issue a pastoral letter regarding the Columbia River in February 2001.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-05
Family background; youth; Methow Valley; apple growing; Mexican labor; Indians; Chief Joseph & Azwell Dams; seminary school; The Pontifical College Josephinum; parish work at Sacred Heart Parish in Pullman, Washington; Washington State University; Assumption Parish in Spokane, Washington; appointment as Bishop in Yakima, Washington.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-05
Awareness of problems surrounding Columbia River management; National Conference of Bishops; pastoral letter; National Partnership of Religion and Environment; biggest concerns surrounding the Columbia River; sacramental in commons; pastoral letter—terminology—use—intent.
2745 Mitch Sanchotena interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-05
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 66 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Mitch Sanchotena was Executive Director of Idaho Steelhead and Salmon Unlimited.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-05
Family background, French Basque; sheep herding; growing up in Burley, Idaho; youth; Snake River; Milner Dam; salmon fishing on the Middle Fork of the Salmon River; Bear Valley Creek.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-05
Idaho's salmon fishery; education; service in the Navy; running a jet boat on the Salmon River; Frank Church Wilderness Area; marketing the Salmon River; MacKay Bar Corporation; steelhead; litigation against the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); Canadian non-treaty storage; Northwest Power Act (NWPA); salmon allocation; Idaho sport fishing; Idaho Fish and Game; Columbia River Compact; Pacific Salmon Treaty; Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); U.S. v. Oregon; Jim Jones; Jim McClure; Mark Hatfield; appropriating money to install screens on dams; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE); "good" science; dam removal on the Lower Snake; Save Our Wild Salmon Coalition; hatcheries; wild fish management; Bill Bakke; South Fork Salmon River hatchery; Mitchell Act; Caspian tern salmon predation; marine mammal salmon predation.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-05
Thoughts on dam removal (domino theory); Idaho Power dams on the Snake River; Hells Canyon Dam complex; mitigation strategies; Celilo Falls; infrastructure modification for dam removal; subsidies; evolution of personal views and interests; Chinook salmon; 1996-1997 floods; climatic cycles; support for Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery; hatcheries; acclimation facilities; Idaho Fish and Game; Ed Boldt; turning federal hatcheries over to tribes; optimism for the future of salmon.
2747 Reed Benson interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-05, 2000-06
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 69 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Reed Benson was the Executive Director, Water Watch of Oregon. Reed Benson graduated magna cum laude from the University of Michigan Law School and began working for Water Watch in 1993. He formerly worked for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a staff attorney for the Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, and for a Colorado law firm. In 1997, he became a Water Watch staff attorney specializing in federal water policy.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-05, 2000-06
Family background; early environmental advocacy; education; Platte River watershed; becoming a water lawyer; water law; overview of western water issues; western water rights; Columbia River Basin and general water issues.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-05, 2000-06
Missing/not available.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-05, 2000-06
Columbia River—seasonal flows—water withdrawals; early professional life; Water Watch and the Umatilla Basin Project; Oregon and Western water law history and water management; tribal water rights.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-05, 2000-06
Tribal water rights; Western Water Project; agricultural litigation along the Columbia River; organizational relationships with legislators and other organizations; potential changes in water regulations; Pacific Northwest and Oregon water law and use—contemporary issues; Water Watch.
2748 Glen Spain by Clark Hansen , 2000-06, 2000-07
7 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 142 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Glen Spain was the Northwest Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Federation of Fishermen's Associations (PCFFA), the largest organization of commercial fisher folk on the west coast. He is a founder of its Institute for Fisheries Resources, a non-profit organization dedicated to the protection and restoration of salmon and other marine resources. Spain holds a doctorate degree in Law and had an active environmental business law practice until 1995. He has been involved as an attorney and activist in many West Coast and national conservation issues.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-06, 2000-07
Family background; youth; Tucson, Arizona; California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech); nuclear energy and science in general; Claremont Colleges; The Vietnam draft; Berkeley, California; Mendocino County, California; communal living.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-06, 2000-07
Vocations for Social Change (VSC); Village One; Fairlawn Institute; computer technology; Peoples' Energy; New College School of Law; non-profit consulting; Fairlawn Foundation; U. S. Navy nuclear waste dumping in the Pacific Ocean; early law practice; Betty Lou Whalley; Pacific Coast Federation of Fisherman's Association (PCFFA).
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-06, 2000-07
Living in Comptche, California; California Fishers; hatcheries; Fort Bragg, North Carolina; salmon; Klamath Management Zone; Endangered Species Act (ESA); California Central Valley; National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS); rice farming; genetic conservation hatcheries; salmon sanctuaries; PCFFA; Senate Bill 1042 (Oregon); differences between California and Oregon fishers.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-06, 2000-07
PCFFA; moving to Eugene, Oregon; Institute for Fisheries Resources (IFR); Salmon for All; Columbia River fishing issues; Save Our Wild Salmon (SOS); Net ban ballot initiatives; Allocation Conflicts.
Tape 5 Contents: , 2000-06, 2000-07
Economic development and population growth; living with limits (sustainable communities); Sufism; working with spiritual organizations; spiritual incentives and growth; sustainable resource development; salmon restoration; ESA; opposition to environmental rollbacks, 104th Congress; coalition building; IFR; environmental issues and the Republican Party; decommissioning dams.
Tape 6 Contents: , 2000-06, 2000-07
PCFFA's efforts to remove dams; dam re-licensing; Savage Rapids Dam (Rogue River); Lower Snake River dams; economic growth and environmental degradation; overfishing; Department of Commerce; fisheries management; Magnuson Act; NMFS; Clean Water Act; Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) related litigation; Marine Protected Areas (MPAs); PCFFA; sustainable fishing; ground fish harvest reduction; dam removal; Columbia Basin dams; Savage Rapids Dam; energy conservation and renewable energy sources.
Tape 7 Contents: , 2000-06, 2000-07
Dam removal in the Columbia Basin; Columbia estuary; dredging; fishing mortality; technological fixes for the hydropower system; subsidies; allocation struggles between fishers; relationships with tribes; ESA; Clean Water Act; fish-friendly urban issues; liability issues for urbanites and politicians; reactive resource management; litigation under the Clean Water Act concerning the four Lower Snake River dams; litigation over dredging the Lower Columbia River; flow augmentation litigation (Columbia River system); wise use litigation by Common Sense Salmon Recovery.
2749 Robert Tuck interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-05
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 74 pages.Biography and Description: Bob Tuck was a member of the Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission, 1998-2000. At the time of this inteview, he was a private consultant, providing technical and program assistance on a variety of fisheries, habitat, and water activities and projects in Washington and Oregon. He has also provided technical coordination and assistance for an environmental education program involving numerous school districts in central Washington.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-05
Family background; Puget Sound; Boeing; Yakima Valley, Washington - urban development; farming and raising dairy cattle (Holstein); Yakima-Teton Irrigation District; irrigation farming; climatic cycles in Yakima Basin; Teton River; Columbia River Basin hydropower development; description of family farm; Roza Irrigation District; Works Progress Administration (WPA); fishing; salmon; federal irrigation laws - development; U.S. Department of the Interior (USDOI); General Land Office (GLO); subsidies; overview of Columbia Basin development history; depletion of salmon runs in the Yakima Basin.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-05
Hatcheries; Oregon moist pellet; work for the Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); Yakama Indian Nation; Boldt Decision; Northwest Power Act (NWPA); Endangered Species Act (ESA); Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); Floyd Donnelly; Yakima Basin salmon restoration; dam removal on the Lower Snake River; Hanford Reach; potential for main stem spawning in the Snake River (fall Chinook); hatchery development; ESA; salmon restoration and Native Americans; Yakama Indian Nation and Yakima Basin restoration efforts.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-05
NWPA; Quackenbush decision; spring Chinook; Bureau of Reclamation (BOR); in-stream flows; Naches River; Kennewick pump plant—construction; Prosser Dam; subsidies; government buyouts; PacifiCorp power plant at Wapato; lower Snake irrigation pumps; dams as symbols of progress; John Day Dam (permanent draw down); provincialism; the federal government and perceived western individualism; full-cost accounting; hatcheries; genetic sanctuaries; American River (spring Chinook); Satus Creek (steelhead); Hanford Reach (fall Chinook); Priest Rapids Hatchery; barging; conquering nature with technology; salmon restoration goals; federal government and Indian treaty obligations; plenary power of Congress; Supreme Court and enforcing treaty obligations; potential for backlash; case regarding criminal jurisdiction over non-Indians on reservations (Oliphant case from the Puyallup Reservation); case regarding riverbed ownership of the Yellowstone River; Belloni and Boldt decisions; thoughts on the future of salmon restoration.
2780 Bill Bakke interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-06
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 49 pages.Biography and Description: Bill Bakke was born in 1945 and grew up in the St. Johns neighborhood of Portland, Oregon. He became a biologist and the founder of Oregon Trout as well as the director of the Native Fish Society.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-06
Family background; St. Johns, Portland, Oregon; Lewis River, Washington; fishing; Swift Creek Dam; Deschutes River, Oregon; Roderick Haig-Brown; Fly Fishers Club of Oregon; Deschutes Club; fishing organizations & conservation advocacy; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Wild Fish Policy; Commercial fishing and sports fishing; removal of steelhead from commercial harvests; Clear Creek Fish Hatchery (Clackamas River, OR) and Livingston Stone; Columbia River salmon; salmon science; Willis Rich; Oregon Fish Commission; Babcock & Anderson; Fraser River, British Columbia salmon; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (biological survey); Willamette River; Bonneville Hatchery (Central Hatchery); Imprinting and homing; water chemistry; ocean movements; meta-population centers; hatcheries; Henry Regear.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-06
Willamette spring Chinook; local adaptation; domestication selection (in hatcheries); Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings for salmon; indicator species; keystone species; Wild Fish Policy (Oregon); Louisa Bateman; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW); gene conservation; John Day River salmon and steelhead; Kalama River, Washington; Deschutes River, Oregon; studies on hatchery-wild fish interactions; ESA; Snake River Chinook; enabling legislation for the ODFW; Mitchell Act; Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); Willis Rich; High Mountain Sheep Dam; Lower Granite Dam; Northwest Steelheaders; Idaho Power dams; Indian fishers and fishing rights; Anti-Indian salmon management (or lack of); Celilo Falls; The Dalles Dam; Oregon Trout; ESA listings—Coho—Snake River Chinook salmon; Columbia River Gill-Netters.
2781 David Campiche interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-06
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 58 pages.Biography and Description: David Campiche received a Fine Arts degree from Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon. He then returned to his hometown in Long Beach Washington and operated an art gallery. In addition, he his wife Laurie operate The Shelburne Inn in Seaview, Washington. David Campiche serves on the Board of Directors of the Willapa Bay Alliance.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-06
Description of China Beach in Ilwaco, Washington; Lewis and Clark; early 19th century history; family background and youth; career inspirations; Lower Columbia River history—jetties—Columbia River Channel—islands—Native American fishing—non-native fishing; Desdemona Sands, Astoria; logging in Pacific and Gray counties; stream degradation and the Chinook River; early environmentalism; Ilwaco, Washington and Lower Columbia River canneries; logging; tourism.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-06
Ilwaco, Washington and Lower Columbia River canneries; logging; tourism; Willapa Bay; Willapa Alliance; Ecotrust; Weyerhaeuser; Nature Conservancy; Sustainable Community Summit; sea resources; ecotourism; cranberry spraying (pesticides)—and Native American miscarriages—and oysters—and spartina (invasive grass).
2782 Michael Farrow interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-07
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 20 pages. See librarian for restrictions.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Michael Farrow was Director, Department of Natural Resources for the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-07
Family background; youth; Vietnam; economics; planning for the Umatilla Indian Reservation; Natural Resource Planning (Umatilla); fishing rights; Boldt Decision; Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC) Bureau of Land Management (BLM); restoring fish runs in the Umatilla basin (Umatilla Basin Project); salmon restoration on the Lower Snake River; "Martini Ranches" in fire and flood zones.
2783 Antone Minthorn interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-07 through 2000-09
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 60 pages. See librarian for restrictions.Biography and Description: Antone Minthorn is an enrolled Nez Perce, and member of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). He has served as chairman of the board of trustees for CTUIR.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-07 through 2000-09
Family background; Indian names and naming; Oregon Trail immigrants; Whitman massacre; Cayuse War; 1855 Treaty (Walla Walla); Wallowa Nez Perce; Grand Ronde; Pendleton Roundup; origin of Antone Minthorn's name; living with grandparents; Minam River; Catherine Creek; fishing; John Day River; Paiutes; Shoshones; Bannock War; General Oliver Otis Howard; combining Cayuse, Walla Walla and Umatilla on the reservation; youth—WWII; Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC); German POWs; fishing in Squaw Creek and Buckaroo Creek; influence of Catholicism and dreamer medicine religion; medicine men.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-07 through 2000-09
Religious beliefs and practices (personal); fishing; Celilo Falls; tributary fish; 1855 treaties; treaty rights; Self Determination Act; tribal revitalization; risks of litigation (re: treaty rights); Umatilla Basin Project.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-07 through 2000-09
Antone Minthorn's grandmother (Titalakimnai); Allotment Acts of 1885 and 1887; Indian Reorganization Act (Wheeler-Howard Act of 1934); John Collier; Stevens Treaties of 1855; dissention and division among the Nez Perce; agricultural development on tribal lands; stock raising; Gonzaga University; Thorn Hollow; fishing at Celilo Falls; commercial fishing; fishery closure on the Columbia in 1974; The Dalles Dam; losing salmon; Eastern Oregon State University; urban planning; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA); working for the Umatilla Tribes; community planning approaches—native and non-native; Indian self-sufficiency; Indian Self Determination Act.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-07 through 2000-09
Education; problem solving—high drop out rates—truancy; Indian Gaming Act; casinos; Antone Minthorn's grandmother; Pendleton Roundup; grain elevators; BIA; Pendleton Flour Mills; farming; truck stop; salmon restoration; dam breaching and alternatives; Federal Trust responsibilities; Celilo Falls; restoring "usual and Accustomed places" (for fishing) through litigation (in lieu fishing sites); Indian Claims Commission; Indian Claims Act; Northwest Power Act (NWPA); Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); "Three Sovereigns"—approach to Columbia Basin issues—problems with finding unity; Inter-Tribal compacts and treaties; Columbia River Forum; John Kitzhaber; upper Columbia River United Tribes (UCUT); CRITFC; Snake River Tribes; tribal unification.
2784 Jay Minthorn interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-08
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 75 pages. See librarian for restrictions.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Jay Minthorn served on the Oregon Legislatures Commission on Indian Services. He was chairman of the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC) and has served as vice-chairman of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Cultural Resources Committee. Minthorn has also served on the CTUIR Board of Trustees and Fish and Wildlife Committee.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Family background—Nez Perce; Antone Minthorn; Umatilla; youth; Chief Bill Burke; "Whipman"; raising horses; Umatilla River; dip net fishing at Chinaman's Hole; steelhead and salmon; depletion and restoration of Umatilla fishery; suckers; White Fish; lamprey eels; Celilo Falls; Boardman, Oregon; Blalock Canyon; Shoban (Shoshone Bannock); Yakama; Wishram; First Salmon Ceremony (spring Chinooks); dancing; Intertribal conflict resolution; commercial fishing; Seufert Brothers; Deschutes River; nets—dip nets—set nets—drift nets—gill nets; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-08
Celilo Falls; Pendleton Roundup; fishing buoys; Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); "over the bank sales" (of fish); tribal fishery enforcement; National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS); regulated (fish) escapement; hatchery fish and fin clipping; distributing the tribal catch; managing natural resources; fish restoration, Umatilla River; Antone Minthorn; Umatilla Basin Project; McNary Dam; irrigators; water conflicts; Three Sovereigns; development of political and economic capital (tribal); Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC); casinos; First Interstate Bank; development of non-Indian trust in Indians; habitat restoration; reforestation; restoring the Umatilla River's natural landscape; Bureau of Reclamation (BOR); Cold Springs Reservoir; providing minimal instream flows for fish; water spreading; building a reservoir on the reservation; Bureau of Land Management (BLM); regaining the tribal land base.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-08
Indian names; zoning on the reservation; infringements of treaty rights; Slade Gorton; Bill Burke; legal issues on the reservation; World Court; pan-indigenous issues (Indigenous People Resolution); CRITFC; Pendleton, Oregon; attitudes toward Native Americans; scholarships; Chuck Norris; Gordon Smith; Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA); politics; Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA); terns; U. S. Forest Service; BLM; Interstate 84; growing pains on the reservation; diabetes; returning to the old ways.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-08
Toughts on the future; opening a pawn shop; regaining farm lands from non-Indians; (Oregon) natural conservation service; Commission on Indian Services; Karen Quigley.
2785 Lloyd Marbet interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-06, 2001-02
4 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 88 pages. See librarian for restrictions.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Lloyd Marbet was a caretaker, citizen activist and program manager. His background includes opposition to the Vietnam War, nuclear power, and protection of the initiative and referendum process. He served in the U.S. Navy from 1966 to1967. He also served on the Citizens Utility Board and from 1996 to 2000 on the Clackamas River Basin Council. Marbet was a candidate for Oregon Secretary of State in 2000, Pacific Green Party.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-06, 2001-02
Family background; youth; U.S. Navy; Vietnam; Subic Bay, Philippines; Clark Air Force Base (Manila, Philippines); honorable discharge; Broon Technical Community College; antiwar advocacy; moving to Portland, Oregon; The "Portland Scribe"; nuclear energy; reading "Perils of the Peaceful Atom"; Trojan (nuclear power plant); Portland State University (PSU); Atomic Energy Commission (AEC); speaking at public hearings and rate proceedings; Boardman, Oregon nuclear power plants; Portland General Electric (PGE); Nuclear Thermal siting Council (NTSC); Department of Energy (DOE); Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); John Bartels; Buella Hand; Eugene Rosolie; Bob Cobb; Oregon Environmental Council (OEC); Ralph Nader; Bureaucratic obstacles for civic intervention and participation; Richard Sandvik; Boardman Naval Bombing Range; NTSC's rejection of PGE's application; moving the site to Pebble Springs.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-06, 2001-02
Opposition to nuclear power at Pebble Springs; Bob Cobb; raising safety, health and waste issues about nuclear power; NRC's general rule making proceedings; J. Carl Freedman; John Colberg; Rosolie Bretel; waste disposal; atomic safety and licensing board; Walter Jordan; values (personal); Chuck Deterich; money and wealth; living simply; Lloyd Marbet's daughter; list of major political activities; Teledyne Wachang's low level nuclear waste dump on the Willamette River; Trojan; protecting Oregon's initiative and referendum process; River Island Sand and Gravel expansion (mining on flood plain of the Clackamas River); American Sand and Gravel; Faye Marsh; gravel mining; Camp Collins; rafting on the Clackamas River; Trojan ballot measures; Skagit Nuclear Plants; Citizen's Utility Board (CUB).
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-06, 2001-02
Clackamas River Basin Council (CRBC); Oregon Conservancy Foundation (OCF); organizing initiative campaigns; making a living; Elaine Kelly; Greenpeace; Greg Kafoury; Dan Meek; Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); Pacific Power and Light (PP&L); OCF; PGE; litigation settlement Pebble Springs; intervention breakdown; Wachang (near defeat); environmental protection agency (EPA); Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA); Trojan—infant mortality rates; Ernest Sternglass; Jay Gould; science and politics; energy demands and prices in the Columbia Basin.
Tape 4 Contents: , 2000-06, 2001-02
Economic demands and prices in the Columbia Basin; energy forecasting; Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS); cost overruns; PGE's reward of stranded assets from the closure of Trojan; energy deregulation; California's energy crisis; running for secretary of state; moving toward a more energy efficient society; Joel Schotz; decentralizing energy sources; thoughts on the future; coming to terms with externalized costs.
2786 Kathryn Brigham interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-07
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 17 pages. See librarian for restrictions.Biography and Description: At the time of the intervew, Kathryn Brigham was on the Board of Trustees for the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-07
Personal background; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indians; Celilo; Cascade Locks; commercial fishing; Sam Cashcash; Nez Perce; closing of commercial fishing in 1977; shad; Columbia River Fish Management Plan; U.S. v. Oregon; getting involved in tribal politics; Intertribal Natural Resource management; hatcheries; allocation (catch); restocking salmon to the Umatilla River; Northwest Power Planning Council; irrigation screens; habitat restoration; truck transport; Endangered Species Act (ESA); ranchers; Carson Creek salmon stocks; hatchery fish; trucking and barging fish; Grand Ronde River; Columbia River water quality; improving flows; Ed Chaney; litigation.
2787 Herbert Hammond interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-09
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 51 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Herbert Hammond was a British Columbia Registered Professional Forester with a Master's degree in forest ecology and silviculture. Hammond has twenty years experience as an industrial forester, teacher, consultant, and as a researcher specializing in soil degradation, holistic inventories and prescriptions, and practical planning systems. Hammond has worked for Weyerhaeuser and Crown Zellerbach and with the Nisga'a Tribal Council, the Gitksan - Wet - suwet'en Hereditary Chiefs, the Kluskus Band, the Cortez Island Forest Committee and the Friends of Ecological Reserves. With his partner Susan Hammond, he co-authored the BC Watershed Protection Handbook, the Community Guide to Forests and Seeing the Forest Among the Trees - the case for holistic forest use. They have also formed the Silva Forest Foundation.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-09
Family background; Medford, Oregon; McKenzie & Willamette Rivers; Corvallis, Oregon; forestry; Oregon State University; bioengineering; University of Washington; US Coast Guard; Crown Zellerbach; British Columbia; Clearcutting; ecosystem-based forest use; Silva Forest Foundation; First Nations; Forest Stewardship Council; Nisga'a; academia; forestry; Oregon State University.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-09
Forestry practices; capitalist driven value systems; keystone species; indicator species; global economy; Slocan Valley, British Columbia.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-09
Innu people; building sustainable economies; democracy.
2788 William Green interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-09
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 52 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, William Green was a member of the Ktunaxa/Kinbasket Tribal Council.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-09
Ktunaxa Kinbasket (Tribe); youth; education; Manus Island, New Guinea; environmental legislation; Nuu-Cha-Nulth; fisheries; Vancouver Island; North American Resource management; Canadian Columbia River Intertribal Fisheries Commission; salmon restoration; First Nations; Grand Coulee Dam; International Joint Commission. Treaty negotiations between British Columbia and First Nations; R (Regina the Queen) -v- Sparrow; 1982 Constitution Act; R -v- White and Bob; Okanogan Sockeye; Pacific Salmon Treaty; Pacific Salmon Commission; International Columbia River Engineering Board; 1964 Treaty; dams; fish; Pacific Salmon Treaty of 1985.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-09
Fraser River Watershed; Okanogan Watershed Restoration; fish hatcheries; managing water flows; flood control; B.C. Hydro; riparian zone restoration; role of salmon in the ecosystem; dam removal; salmon restoration; renegotiating the Columbia River Treaty in 2014 and 2024; flood control; hydropower; Northwest Power Planning Council.
2789 Marilyn James interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-09
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 48 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Marilyn James was an advocate for First Nations people and a spokesperson for the Sinixt people in British Columbia.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-09
Family background; youth; growing up adjacent to the Colville Reservation; racism of native People against Chinese; family ancestry; repatriation and reburial of Sinixt ancestors; history of the Sinixt people; the Columbia River Treaty; lost records and documents of the Sinixt people; Salish dialects; genetic origins of Salish speakers; cultural identity in a matrilineal society and government manipulation; colonization.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-09
Safety from non-natives on the reservation; Salmon Scam; fluoride poisoning of salmon; ALCOA; caribou; bull trout; recommending management strategies to the Ministry of Forests and Ministry of the Environment; becoming a representative for the Sinixt; repatriating Sinixt remains from the Canadian government.
2790 Lloyd Sharpe interview by Clark Hansen , 2000-09
3 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 78 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Lloyd Sharpe was a rancher and surveyor for Columbia River System (Canada), Columbia River Engineering. He was a plaintiff in litigation regarding compensation for lost land in British Columbia.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-09
Family background; early Canadian westward movement; Baines Lake, British Columbia; Willoughby Dam; Depression years; Baker Lumber Company; logging the Kootenay River watershed; working for the Department of Northern Affairs; Columbia River engineering; Columbia Lake; Mica Dam; plan to divert the Upper Columbia River into the Fraser River; Columbia River Treaty; The Parsons Plan; Grand Coulee Dam; Duncan Dam; Libby Dam; Mica Dam; renegotiating the Columbia River Treaty in 2024; fighting for compensation for construction of Libby Dam; settlement.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-09
Fighting for compensation—Libby Dam; settlement; British Columbia Land Branch; Jack Cram; litigation against the provincial government; B.C. Hydro; Arrow Lakes; Department of Highways; fluctuating reservoir levels; Endangered Species Act (ESA) salmon and sturgeon; Bull River hatchery (sturgeon propagation); Columbia Basin Trust; Libby Dam reservoir levels; recreation potential; Columbia Power Corporation; Josh Smake; impact money; privatizing Canadian dams on the Columbia.
Tape 3 Contents: , 2000-09
Regional rifts within British Columbia and Canada; socialism; destroying salmon—extinction; water scarcity and massive water transfer schemes; agricultural subsidies; Columbia Basin Trust; B.C. Hydro; Columbia River Treaty re-negotiation; First Nations; anti-Indian sentiment; damming the Fraser River.
2791 Louie Pitt, Jr. interview by Clark Hansen , 2001-02
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 44 pages. See librarian for restrictions.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Louie Pitt, Jr. was Director of Governmental Affairs and Planning for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2001-02
Family background; youth; Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs; living in Hollywood and Madras, Oregon; family history and tribal history; voting districts on the Warm Springs Reservation; termination era; getting an education; Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2001-02
Vietnam War memories; raising children; alcoholism; environmental management on Warm Springs Reservation; fighting non-sustainable forest management; casinos; sustainable management; hatcheries.

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Series B::  Camas, Washington Community Histories

7 Interviews (13 cassette tapes). 2773-2773.7.

Container(s)
Description
cassette
2773 Printed material from Center for Columbia River History Web Site. Portions of Web Site that use quotes from oral histories collected for the Camas Community History Project. Written and constructed by Kathy Tucker. Edited by Laurie Mercier.
2773.1 Chuck Williams interview by Kathy Tucker. Also present, Lisa Hubbard , 2000-04
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 16 pages. See Librarian for restrictions.Biography and Description: Chuck Williams, a writer and photographer of Caucasian and Cascade Indian descent, owned a photography gallery in The Dalles, Oregon at the time of this interview. He is author of Bridge of the Gods: A Return to the Columbia Gorge, published by Friends of the Earth in 1980. He has been an activist with Friends of the Earth and during the 1980s he fought against National Scenic Area designation for the Columbia River Gorge, and worked to have the Gorge designated a National Park. Williams is enrolled with the Grande Ronde Tribe.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-04
Personal background—photography—Columbia Gorge Gallery; Vista program—description; Cascade Indian family history—Kalliah—Tumulth; Native Americans in the area; identity issues—as Caucasian—as Native American; Columbia Gorge protection—land use issues in the Gorge; discrimination; Indian fishing sites—in lieu fishing sites for compensation; Bonneville Dam; Friends of the Columbia Gorge; Native American leaders—Johnny Jackson—Louis and Lillian Pitt—Tumulth—Nelson Lilitum.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-04
Teninos; Warm Springs; Columbia Gorge Discovery Center; Columbia Gorge Interpretive Center; Center for Columbia River History Websites.
2773.2 Kathy Sinclair interview by Kathy Tucker , 2000-05
2 sound cassettes (ca. 90 minutes): analog. Transcript, 16 pages.Biography and Description: Kathy Sinclair was born in Camas in 1921. She worked at the Camas mill and has lived in the town her entire life.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-05
Family background—Greek heritage; mill strike—strikebreaker; ethnic groups in Camas—Mexicans—Italians—African-American; Greek Orthodox Church; Union at the mill; working at the mill; working at Kaiser—pay scale compared to mill; Camas coffee shop—The Dixieland; Camas Days celebration—Western Days; Okies move in.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-05
Bonneville Dam; use of the Columbia River—for the mill—recreation—transportation; Camas identity.
2773.3 Jean Moszeter interview by Kathy Tucker , 2000-10
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 13 pages.Biography and Description: Jean Moszeter grew up in Yakima Valley, married in 1948 and moved to Camas, Washington in 1959. She raised her family in Camas and became active in community affairs.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-10
Moving to Camas; Washougal River; working for Camas School Board; involvement with the United Camas Association of Neighborhoods (UNAC)—Lakeview and Lacamas Lake—being a "rabble-rouser" on environmental issues—changes in Camas over the years; Prune Hill—development fees—congestion; Fort James—Crown Zellerbach—attitude towards the mill; Bonneville Dam—effect on the Columbia River; the Pendleton Woolen Mills; Clark County's Citizens in Action; environmentalists; Lacamas Shores; UCAN—the conservancy zone—Goot Park—people involved with issues.
2773.4 Crystal Odum interview by Kathy Tucker , 2000-02
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 14 pages.Biography and Description: Crystal Odum is African American and grew up in San Francisco and Stockton, California. She moved to Camas, Washington and began working in the Camas paper mill in 1976.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-02
Family history; San Juaquin Valley; education—Delta College; move to Camas, 1976; the Camas mill—race issues—initiation of new workers—Vietnamese refugee workers—gender issues on the job—the union—the self-managed workforce; environmental issues— smell of chemicals; living in Camas; going to Nigeria.
2773.5 Bob Cochrane interview by Laurie Mercier , 2000-06
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 18 pages.Biography and Description: Bob Cochrane grew up in Yacolt, Washington and began working in the Camas Paper Mill in the 1960s. He was a member of the Association of Western Pulp and Paper Workers.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-06
Starting on the number five paper machine; Association of Western Pulp and Paper Workers—Local 5—International Paperworkers Union—the Pulp and Sulfite union— tension among families—autonomy from the larger unions; Pulp and Paper Workers' Resource Council; environmental issues—Spotted Owl; environmental regulations; mechanization and modernization of the mills; job preservation; exporting raw materials; Fort James; Crown Zellerbach; Weyerhaeuser; Asian markets—log sales; strikes and lockouts.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-06
Changes in Camas with hi-tech—downsizing the company; The United Brotherhood of Paperworkers—Pace—age of the work force; minorities and equal opportunity; Columbia River and dioxin pollution—the cluster rules—water levels; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and women's rights—improvement in working standards—safety issues—hazardous chemicals—MSDS labels; shift work; work schedules.
2773.6 Dean Dosset interview by Melissa Williams , 2000-07
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 9 pages.Biography and Description: Dean Dosset was born in Kellogg, Idaho. He moved to Camas in 1963 and became involved in city government. He served as mayor at the time of this interview.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-07
Move to Camas—impressions, 1963; work available in the area; history of Camas Paper Mill—Crown Zellerbach—James River—Fort James—Georgia Pacific; community economic dependence on the mill; soliciting businesses to move to Camas; housing developments in the area—Prune Hill—Grass Valley—Lacamas Shores; balancing environment with growth; economic and racial diversity in Camas; community character—as an independent, small town; Camas school system—effects of growth; I-205 impact to community; the role of the mill in a diversified economy; the United Camas Association of Neighborhoods—organizing—involvement; Camas school district—superintendents.
2773.7 Richard Kingsbury interview by Kathy Tucker , 2000-02
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 18 pages.Biography and Description: Richard Kingsbury is an African American who was born in Texas and grew up in Seattle. He lived in Portland, Oregon and moved to Camas, Washington to work in the paper mill.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-02
Move from Seattle to Portland, Oregon; racism in the North and South; military draft—Vietnam; racism in the military; disabled veterans; Delayed Stress Syndrome; applying for a job at the paper mill in Camas, Washington; buying a house in Camas; finding a mentor; racism at the mill; meal tickets; the union; interracial marriage in Camas; women supervisors; Project Early Bird; Urban League; strike at the mill; Asians at the mill;
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-02
Work at the mill—red tagged—Kraft Mill Department—first cook—diversity; moving to Vancouver and raising an interracial family.

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Series C::  Columbia Slough, Oregon Community Histories

23 Interviews (32 cassette tapes). 2772-2772.23.

Container(s)
Description
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2772 Printed material from Center for Columbia River History Web Site. Portions of Web Site that use quotes from oral histories collected for the Columbia Slough Community History Project. Written and constructed by Donna Sinclair. Edited by Laurie Mercier.
2772.1 David Kasch interview by Michele Montzouranis , 2000-08
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 9 pages.Biography and Description: David Kasch was born in Portland, Oregon in 1925. He worked on the Columbia and Willamette Rivers as a deckhand, skipper, tugboat captain and Columbia Riverboat pilot. Mr. Kasch lived in the University Homes wartime housing project and saw the Vanport Flood.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
North Portland, Oregon—childhood—changes; biographical information; University Homes; Vanport, Oregon; World War II; 1996 Flood; Sternwheeler and Steamers—Portland—Jean—HendersonColumbia GorgeQueen of the West; Jack Taylor; Fred Meyer Trust; Oregon Maritime Museum; Shaver Transportation; Columbia River Pilots; barges; tugboats; Vancouver, Washington; Crown Zellerbach—log rafting; Camas, Washington; post-World War II shipping industry; tugboats—ValiantCaptain GeorgeChinook; work as towboat operator; George Shaver; transportation and hauling goods on the Columbia River; ship size—container ships—yachts; accidents on the Columbia River; interest in river work.
2772.2 Ronald Bunn interview by Geoff Wetherell , 2000-08
1 cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 10 pages.Biography and Description: Ronald Bun (English, Scot, Welch heritage) was born on April 11, 1929 in Sparks, Nebraska. He came to Portland in 1944 because his father obtained a job as a ship builder, and the family lived near Guilds Lake. Mr. Bunn worked as a photo engraver at American Engraving (later Oregon Printing Plates) from 1944 to 1972, retiring from Oregon Printing Plates in 1994. At the time of this interview, Ronald Bunn lived near Whitaker Ponds in Portland and had turned down three different purchase offers by Metro for his property.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Biographical information—Sparks, Nebraska; move to Portland, Oregon; father's work; Whitaker Ponds—description—wildlife—landscape change—pollution; Columbia Boulevard—agriculture—Japanese Americans—Okazaki family; truck farming; work as photo engraver—American Engraving Company; Oregon Printing Plates; Vanport Flood; Jantzen Beach Amusement Park; southeast Portland—industrial development; Columbia Boulevard—sewage—industrial development; Krueger Family; Whitaker School—fire; regional government—Metro—negotiations regarding property; Metro Greenspaces—Whitaker Ponds Greenspace.
2772.3 Tim Hayford interview by Jacob Lahmers , 2000-08
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 17 pages.Biography and Description: Tim Hayford was born on August 18, 1955 in Portland, Oregon where he grew up. He attended Jesuit High School, Portland State University and Oregon State University. He was the manager of Multnomah County Drainage District #1 between 1980 and 1999, and was an independent contractor at the time of this interview.
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Tapes 1 & 2 Contents: , 2000-08
Biographical information; Multnomah Drainage District #1 (MCDD#!)—geographic boundaries; drainage districts—history—pumping systems—dredging—filling—changes; Columbia Slough—geography—landscape—as a managed system—irrigation; Reclamation Act—effects; formation of drainage districts; Sauvies Island; Port of Portland, 1930s—airport; lakes near Columbia Slough; Vanport, Oregon; Vanport Flood (1948)—levy breach—levy construction; Heron Lakes Golf Course—history; Portland International Airport—history; Sandy Drainage District; Peninsula Drainage District; Kaiser Aluminum; decision-making regarding land after the Vanport Flood; Port of Portland—Portland International Airport, 1960s; city of Portland—boundaries; Columbia Slough—combined sewer overflows; Bull Run; Tualatin River—pollution; Columbia Slough—pollution—Tri-chloryletheline (TCE) contamination—Boeing; Air National Guard—pollution; flood control and development; impacts of development; MCDD#1—stakeholders—Gresham—Troutdale—Fairview—Wood Village—Multnomah County—property owners; MCDD#1—maintenance and operations; Glen Jackson bridge—construction—environmental impact—history; I-205—runoff disposal; Columbia South Shore—industrial development; Airport Way expansion; Government Island; Portland International Airport—airplane de-icing—pollution and the Columbia Slough—environmental regulations; social composition—farmers; Columbia Slough—management issues—water quality—temperature—vegetation—natural areas; Dave Hendricks.
2772.4 Bill Miller interview by Stacy Danaher , 2000-08
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 30 pages.Biography and Description: Bill Miller (Irish, English heritage), a St. Johns, Portland, Oregon resident, was born December 11, 1916 in Filer, Idaho. His family moved to Portland, Oregon in 1924 and he spent most of his life living in Northeast Portland. In this interview, he spends one hour talking with Stacy Danaher in his living room, and the second hour driving around and showing her the landscape of the Columbia Slough, including he recalls the lakes and sloughs have been filled.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Biographical information; move to Portland, Oregon; father's employment; built home in St. Johns; Albers Milling Company—mother's employment; earthquake (1961?); description of St. Johns, 1920s—recreation as a child; Willamette River and lakes—fishing—recreation; Ramsey Lake; Bybee Lake; Smith Lake; Five Mile Lake; Columbia Slough—fishing; Ogden Slough; Arrowhead Bend; Sitton Elementary School; Wesco writing; schools—Williams—James John—Mrs. Hickman—Bob Sundstrom; Roosevelt High School; meeting his wife—blind date—dancing; dancing—Jantzen Beach—Glen Miller—Tommy Dorsey; Lotus Isle; Great Depression—St. Johns; neighborhoods—alienation—historic cohesion; Arrowhead Bend; Childhood memories of the Columbia Slough—boating—undertow—drowning; brother-in-law building dikes around the Columbia Slough; Fern Keels; Columbia Slough—changes in the landscape; West Coast Concentrate; White Star Concentrate; Bob Seufert; Johnny Todd; St. Johns Bridge dedication; St. Johns Ferry; Bob Catrennace; Oregonian route (paper route); Oregon Convention, 1959; joining the Oddfellows; Oddfellows activities.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-08
Recreation on the Columbia Slough; Vanport Flood; Three Corner Lake; Columbia Slough—pollution; Bybee Lake (St. Johns Landfill); Childhood—earning money—Bob Katrinas—recycling; Terminal Four—changes in the landscape; North Bank Highway; St. Johns Depot (railroad station); Star Cannery; agriculture—truck farming—in North Portland; North Oswego; Oregon Journal route; Lombard; St. Johns Hardware; Mr. Butnik; City Lake; Willamette River; Nuthaven—Columbia Grain Incorporated; Willamette Slough; development in North Portland; Five Mile Lake—recreation; Ramsey Lake; Ogden Slough; Shaver Transportation; Lando Lake—Albers Milling Company—Triangle Building Company; Frenchie Bozy's Lake; Kelly Point Park; Union Pacific; duck hunting; Smith Lake; logging on the Columbia Slough; North Portland Road; Suttle Road; St. Johns Woods; Pier Park; Black Woods; county road; Ledbetter.
2772.5 Jim Douglas interview by Caseman Thompson , 2000-08
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 18 pages.Biography and Description: Jim Douglas (Scot Canadian ancestry) was born on March 31, 1905 on Oneonta Street in Portland, Oregon where he remained throughout his life. He attended Woodlawn Elementary School and Jefferson High School (graduated 1921). He worked in construction, at a stone quarry, and spent 45 years working for General Electric while operating a number of side businesses.
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Tapes 1 & 2 Contents: , 2000-08
Biographical information; Prineville, Oregon; stagecoach ride over Grizzly Pass on the Shaniko Stage; Woodlawn Elementary School; General Electric Company—training—work in management; Guilds Lake; father, James Douglas, Montrose, Scotland (a stonemason); mother, Canadian—ran boarding house in Deadwood, South Dakota; family migration from Canada and Scotland; Woodlawn Neighborhood—social compositon—African American family (former slaves)—Europeans—Dutch—Scot—German—Irish; Captain Henry Vaknockin (Willamette Riverboat pilot); description of streets—gravel; occupations of neighbors; streetcar transportation—Woodlawn cars—Vancouver cars—Union Avenue (Martin Luther King Boulevard); Vancouver Ferry—description of route to ferry landing; Vancouver Avenue—naming; Columbia River—description; marriage and family; meeting his wife; entrepreneurial activities—Woodlawn Theater—Woodlawn Athletic Club; work ethic; competition regarding building the St. Johns Bridge and the Sellwood Bridge; Council Crest - streetcar—amusement park; recreation on the Columbia Slough; changes in the St. Johns Neighborhood—landscape—ethnicity; neighborhood police; self-sufficiency—chickens—gardens; swimming in the Columbia Slough; Renee's Lake; farming—truck gardening—North Portland; dairy farms; hog ranch; boating on the Columbia Slough and Willamette River; tidal effect on Columbia Slough; Jantzen Beach—as Columbia Beach—amusement park; Vancouver Railway Company; changes in street names (Woodlawn); building changes (Woodlawn); Sullivan's Gulch—Hooverville; reflections.
2772.6 George Mitchoff interview by Josh Kline , 2000-08
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 14 pages.Biography and Description: George Mitchoff (Hungarian heritage) was born in Portland, Oregon on December 19, 1928. He attended Portland State University, served in the Army in the Korean War, and worked for Techtronics for 26 years.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Family history—Mount Angel—Northwest Portland; father, Columbia Steel Casting Company; mother, worked in box factory; sister, Virginia Griffith; Great Depression—Kenton Neighborhood, Portland, Oregon—agriculture—roads—lack of work; father, black lung disease; Catholic education in Kenton; Portland high schools—private and public; description of home in Kenton; Prohibition—moonshiner; Italian family, Lassetto; Kenton Neighborhood description, 1930s; grocery stores; life as a teenager in Kenton; recreation on the Columbia Slough; golf courses and waterways; sawmills—Denver Avenue—Willamette River—cedar mills; tugboats; logging; Vanport Flood (1948); Kelly Point Park; family activities—Kenton; Vanport City; Columbia University Homes; post-flood—lumber salvage; Columbia Slough—recreation—fishing—wildlife—landscape—pollution (slaughterhouses)—industry—future; Porky's; Schmeer Road; combined sewer overflows (CSOs); development—Delta Park complex; industry in North Portland; waterway pollution—social impacts; Swift & Company; World War II—activities; Smith & Bybee Lake Restoration Program; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Port of Portland; reflections—Slough access; Columbia Slough Regatta.
2772.7 Jim Regan interview by Keith Dobler , 2000-08
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 10 pages.Biography and Description: Jim Regan (German heritage) was born in Hamilton Creek, California in 1926 and moved to Southeast Portland as a child in 1933. He attended Vanport College, the University of Portland, worked for the Gunderson Brothers Shipyards, and as an engineer, manufacturing food machinery.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Biographical information; Vanport College—describes; Vanport Flood—experience; Columbia Slough—boating—Burlington—fishing—log rafts—pollution; Citizen's Advisory Committee for Multnomah County; land use; Kaiser Shipyards; work in shipyards; Gunderson Brothers—World War II—types of ships—pay; reflections on the Columbia Slough.
2772.8 Alta Mitchoff by Josh Kline , 2000-08
1 sound cassette (ca. 30 minutes): analog. No Transcript.Biography and Description: Alta Mitchoff (German heritage) was born May 16, 1932 in Portland, Oregon and lived in the Kenton Neighborhood at the time of this interview. Her family moved to Portland, Oregon at the turn of the century and settled in North Portland.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Family migration to Portland, Oregon, early 1900s; Arlington Place—lived with grandmother; parent's occupations; parent's divorce; childhood in North Portland—during Great Depression—description of landscape—shopping on Lombard at Piggly Wiggly Store—in Kenton—buildings; high school experiences—recreation—downtown Portland—work; transportation—trolleys—streetcars; reflections on kids today; worked in Japan; return to Portland; meeting George Mitchoff in Portsmouth; moving to Kenton, 1961—demographic description—Tierney Family—Anderson Family; Columbia Slough—Regatta—picking berries—dikes—attitudes toward—fishing in the Slough—demographics; childhood recollections—as a female; Vanport Flood—rumors; community change—impact of traffic—fewer industries (slaughterhouses)—Armor—Swift & Company; Jantzen Beach—description; experiences in North Portland; pollution in the Slough.
2772.9 Ed Washington interview by George Winston Weatheroy , 2000-08
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 13 pages.Biography and Description: Ed Washington (African American) was born on February 26, 1937 in Birmingham, Alabama. He moved with his mother to Vanport City, Oregon on June 6, 1944 and lived in the city during the Vanport Flood of 1948. Washington attended schools in North Portland and Portland State University. He retired from U.S. West Communications after 22 years, taught at Portland State University, and became a Metro Councilman. He has also served as president of the NAACP and has worked with the Urban League and Black United Front.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Move from Birmingham, Alabama to Vanport, Oregon; Vanport—as a child—description—discrimination—post war; closing the shipyards; father's work in the shipyards; mother's work; parent's separation; Vanport Flood—description of day—loss to family; post-flood housing at Swan Island and Guild's Lake; post-flood experience—discrimination; Columbia Slough experiences—recreation—swimming—pollution (slaughterhouses)—fish—changes since childhood; impact of fishing in North Portland—contamination; Mrs. Hazel Hill, teacher; politics—personal attitudes; political work to clean up the Slough; starting Whitaker Ponds project; Columbia Slough pollution and industrialization—recognition of—Port of Portland, de-icing at Portland International Airport; reflections—future of the Slough; impact of pollution on African American community; environmental coalition; fishing on the Slough—Russians—Vietnamese—African Americans; Albina; Vanport—African American police officers—Mr. Jesse—Mr. Travis—Mr. Matt Dishman.
2772.10 Harue Mae Ninomiya interview by Stacy Lambach , 2000-08
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 10 pages.Biography and Description: Harue Mae Ninomiya (Japanese American) was born March 22, 1919 in Portland, Oregon. She attended school in The Dalles, Oregon and in Portland. Her family owned a truck farm and grocery store, and she and her husband owned a store in Vanport, Oregon when the 1948 flood took place. Mae Ninomiya and her family were also interned at the Pacific International Exposition Center during World War II from May 3 to September 12 1942 and then at the Minidoka Relocation Camp in Idaho.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Biographical information; truck farming, fruit stand, and grocery store in North Portland; work at the store while attending Jefferson High School; women and work; World War II—effect on family; relocation—property issues—moving day; Pacific International Exposition Center (Assembly Center)—description of relocation quarters—teaching—work—food—housing; Minidoka Relocation Camp—description—experiences; Tule Lake—transportation—husband's experience; World War II—experiences—return to Portland, Oregon—re-opening the grocery store—family participation in U.S. military—father's response—brother's return from military service.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-08
Vanport, Oregon—race relations; Vanport Flood; work as an aide at James John School; work as a bookkeeper at Madison High School; retirement—going back to school at Portland State University—writing a book, U.S. Citizen's Behind Barbed Wire—other activities.
2772.11 Tony Fazio interview by Patrick McGinnis , 2000-08
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 6 pages.Biography and Description: Tony Fazio (Italian heritage) was born in Portland, Oregon in February 1930. His family came to the Portland area in the 1920s and settled in North Portland. The family farmed on Sauvies Island and also owned a cannery.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Family history; farming on the Columbia Slough; recollections of the Great Depression; Vanport Flood (1948)—impact to cannery—impact to crops—clean up; farming on the Columbia Slough—challenges—canneries—crops; industrialization on the Columbia Slough; move to Sauvies Island; farmer's market; World War II experiences on the homefront; Sauvies Island Ferry; future plans for family property.
2772.12 Elsie Norris interview by Shelly O'Connor , 2000-08
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 8 pages.Biography and Description: Elsie Norris (Caucasian) was born on January 17, 1916 in Portland, Oregon. She grew up in close proximity to the Columbia Slough, and attended George School, Washougal, and Roosevelt.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Family history; St. Johns—early 1900s; Salvation Army band; Dr. Graves; Columbia Boulevard—description, 1920s; Five Mile Lake—swimming; Lotus Island; Jantzen Beach; George School; Roosevelt High School; picking blackberries; Vanport Flood, 1948; Three Corner (Triangle) Lake; World War II—acted as block warden; North Portland—race relations—childhood recreation; Columbia Slough—recreation—houseboats—safety (drowning); childcare; domestic activities; St. Johns Bridge dedication; lion in St. Johns (Chatauqua); home construction on top of cemetery at Mears Street and McCrum; attitudes toward Native Americans; family relations; North Portland Road.
2772.13 Richard Brown interview by Kirsten Wasche , 2000-08
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 9 pages.Biography and Description: Richard Brown (African American) was born in Harlem, New York City, New York. He joined the U.S. Air Force in 1956, and when he retired in 1976 he moved to Portland, Oregon where he met his wife and remained. He was a community activist involved with the Columbia Slough, and at the time of this interview he served as co-chair of the Black United Front and owned a photography studio in Portland.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-08
Biographical information; military experience—airborne communications; African Americans in the U.S. military; Columbia Slough—awareness of—pollution and industry; environmental degradation and minority communities; Don Frances; Nina Bell; signs on the Columbia Slough; relations between the city of Portland and community groups; fishing on the Columbia Slough—contamination; grassroots education efforts—Asian community—Russian community; Environmental Justice Advocacy Group (EJAG); environmental movement and minorities; Willamette River Keepers; video—"The Water in Our Backyard"; connections between race, class, and pollution; combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and fishing; Black United Front—community livability—philosophies (equality); Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ); activism—environmental conference in Brazil—minority concerns; Harlem, New York—United Nations tour—pollution; balancing jobs and environmental concerns.
2772.14 Dave Hendricks interview by Donna Sinclair , 2000-02
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 11 pages.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Dave Hendricks was the operations manager for the Multnomah Drainage District #1 (MDD#1). MDD#1 also managed Peninsula Drainage District #1 and #2, and Sandy Drainage Improvement Company, each of which abut the Columbia Slough.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-02
Multnomah Drainage District #1—operations—crossdikes; protected communities—Troutdale—Fairview—Gresham—Wood Village—Multnomah County; flood plains; role of the Columbia Slough in the Multnomah County Drainage District; pump stations—district management; Slough maintenance; flood control; MDD#1 involvement with—Columbia Slough Watershed Council—city of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services—Oregon Department of Environmental Quality—Port of Portland—Governor's Watershed Council—Neighborhood Associations—environmental groups—U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; environmental legislation; total maximum daily loads (TMDLs); environmental regulations; Columbia Slough sediment contamination (DDT, DDE); combined sewer overflows (CSOs); wetland maintenance; development and fill by MDD#1; non-native, invasive species management; Columbia Steel Castings—fill proposal; economic development on the Columbia Slough; wildlife on the Columbia Slough; U.S. Department of Fish & Wildlife; levies—erosion—inspection—design—impact of wind—innovations—weak links; landscape change on the Columbia Slough; 1996 Flood—response by MDD#1—Marine Drive closure—problems—labor force—landslides—recovery; Federal Emergency Management Act (FEMA); Upper Columbia Slough; Middle Columbia Slough; culvert maintenance by private landowners; Heron Lakes Golf Course; Portland International Raceway; Vanport, Oregon; Bridgeton levy.
2772.15 Susan Barthel interview by Donna Sinclair , 2000-02
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 13 pages.Biography and Description: Susan Barthel was born in Port Washington, Wisconsin on June 18, 1952 where she grew up on her family's farm. Barthel began working for the Bureau of Environmental Services in 1993 and was the Outreach Coordinator for the Columbia Slough Watershed at the time of this interview. She also served on the Columbia Slough Watershed Council.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-02
Obtaining job at the Bureau of Environmental Services; background and education; first recollections of the Columbia Slough; role of the Bureau of Environmental Services (BES) in managing the Columbia Slough; Northwest Environmental Advocates lawsuit; Clean Water Act; North Portland sewers; Bob Koch—plans to improve the Slough; water quality; Columbia Slough Watershed Council (CSWC)—formation—organization—rules—challenges—successes; stakeholders in the CSWC—Pam Arden—Michael Houck—Don Frances—Steve Hawkins—Deanna Hinton—Anne Nickel (Columbia Corridor Association)—Chris Noble (Fairview Lake)—Greg Malarkey (Malarkey Roofing)—Chuck Harrison (Halten Company)—commercial interests; City of Portland involvement with creating the CSWC; Pam Wiley; Americorps participation on the Slough; CSWC projects; Slough Fish Health Advisory; Black United Front; warning signs on the Slough; Kelly Point Park; race relations on the Slough; sign translation—Spanish—Russian—Vietnamese—Cambodian—Lao; fishing on the Slough—contamination; distribution of information regarding health risks—involvement of Hispanic Access Center and International Refugee Center; safe fish preparation; Multnomah County Health Department recommendations; development and industrialization on the Slough; Airport Way; Rivergate; combined sewer overflows; environmental regulations and the city of Portland; St. Johns Landfill—Expanded Wastewater Treatment Plant; Sediment Project (Buffalo Slough Sediment Study); reflections on future of the Slough; Clean Rivers Website.
2772.16 Jane Graybill interview by Donna Sinclair , 2000-02
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 14 pages. Newspaper article, "Drinking Water committee addresses well-field issues."Biography and Description: Jane Begg Graybill was born on September 14, 1941 in Portland, Oregon. She moved to the Blue Lake/Fairview Lake area with her husband in 1967. They built a home in view of Fairview Lake and at the time of this interview Jane Graybill was a member of the Columbia Slough Watershed Council. She was also a citizen activist, attempting to halt development on Fairview Lake.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-02
Biographical information; recollections of Blue Lake and Fairview Lake in the late 1960s; flood control on the Columbia Slough—impact on Fairview Lake; changes in Fairview Lake; dredging at Fairview Lake; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Multnomah Drainage District #1; Blue Lake; sediment contamination in Fairview Lake (DDT, DDE, chlordane, deleldrin); Buffalo Slough Sediment Study; Fairview Creek—alteration—fill; Federal Emergency Management Act (FEMA); 1996 Flood; George Taylor; letter of map revision (LOMAR); flooding on Fairview Lake; Fairview Lake Dam—construction; Gresham Sewage Treatment Plant; earthquake fault line—Marine Drive—Blue Lake—Fairview Lake; Oregon LCDC goals; city of Portland Flood and Landslide Hazard Mitigation Plan (October 1996); importance of wetlands; developing environmental consciousness; development around Fairview Lake; Union Pacific Railroad; citizen activism; City of Portland well fields; loss of species—Western Pond Turtles; Blue Heron; Osborne Creek; Homer Campbell—fish (Coho) in Fairview Lake; habitat restoration; effectiveness as citizen advocate; Columbia River Plan, Ordinance 234; Columbia Slough Watershed Council; Friends of Blue and Fairview Lake.
2772.17 Peter Tenow interview by Donna Sinclair , 2000-02
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 25 pages.Biography and Description: Peter Tenow was born in Nurishell, New York in 1929 and came to the Pacific Northwest via California as an adult, and settled in Portland, Oregon. He moved to the Kenton neighborhood in 1996 and became involved in issues pertaining to the Columbia Slough. He was also a member of the Friends of Smith & Bybee Lakes and the Columbia Slough Watershed Council.
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Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-02
Biographical information; move to Portland, Oregon; first recollections of the Columbia Slough; Susan Barthel; Michael Houck; Columbia Slough Watershed Council; Citizen's Advisory Committee; combined sewer overflows (CSOs); Wastewater Treatment Plant Citizen's Advisory Committee; North Portland Neighborhood—citizen affairs—lightrail—planning; Ed Washington; Charlie Hale; Portland International Center (PIC); mitigation sites on the Columbia Slough; Radio Towers—negotiations—activism; West Hayden Island; Portland International Raceway (PIR)—Master Plan; Peninsula Drainage District #1 (Pen 1); Natural Resources Management Plan; wildlife on the Columbia Slough; natural areas near the Columbia Slough; Smith & Bybee Lakes; Port of Portland; Port Commissioners; North Marine Drive—opposition to development; Airport de-icing; Troy Clark; Marine Drive Expansion; jail project; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; filling wetlands; NIMBY; Adolphson & Associates; Kenton Neighborhood—relationship to Columbia Slough; Forest Lake; Oregon Division of State Lands (DSL); Metro Greenspaces; non-native, invasive vegetation on the Columbia Slough—canary reed grass—purple loosestrife—Amalia blackberries; philosophies regarding citizen activism; Dave Hendricks; Multnomah Drainage District #1; City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services; Bridgeton; golf courses—certified by Audubon Society—pollution; dredging.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-02
City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services; land use planning; Columbia Corridor Association; commercial interests on the Slough; community activism—cooperation; Mike Houck and activism; Exposition Center; Joe Ingles; work with Kenton Neighborhood Association; North Lightrail; Metro Regional Government; Ed Washington; North Portland summit; Rex Burkholder; Columbia Slough politics; City of Portland Bureau of Planning; Dave Hendricks; Bob Groncznack (MDD#1 manager); North Portland development and industrialization; Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT, PDOT); North Marine Drive; Hayden Meadows; Jantzen Beach; airport de-icing; Columbia Slough activism—successes—challenges; sewage treatment plant; total maximum daily loads (TMDLs); Ramsey Lake; habitat restoration; Purple Loosestrife summit; clearing vegetation; ecosystem management—insects; river management; development of environmental awareness—father an environmentalist, 1960s; KPFA Radio; radical politics; political transformation, Carmel, California; perspectives—on art—on nature; work ethics; inheritance—Socialist and Protestant ethics; Troy Clark; Audubon Society; attitudes toward the— environment—Columbia Slough—politics; Lower Columbia River Estuary Program; Friends of Smith & Bybee Lakes; Port of Portland; Brian Campbell.
2772.18 Troy Clark and Emily Roth interview by Donna Sinclair , 1999-10
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 15 pages. Photo—Emily Roth and Troy Clark. Photocopy of Smith & Bybee Lakes pamphlet.Biography and Description: Troy Clark was a citizen activist on the Columbia Slough Watershed Council and the president of the Friends of Smith & Bybee Lakes. Emily Roth, Wildlife Manager for Smith & Bybee Lakes, was a Metro employee. This interview took place outdoors near the St. Johns Landfill, Smith Lake, and the Columbia Slough.
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Tape 1 Contents:
Geography of the North Slough; water control structure to link Smith & Bybee Lakes—dam, built 1982; Blind Slough; St. Johns Landfill—relation to waterways—and Columbia Slough—and pollutants—and wildlife—and future; management of Smith & Bybee Lakes; Columbia River floodplain; Pearcy Lake; Ramsey Lake; bird watching; water levels; Avian botulism; 1996 Flood—impact to Slough—and St. Johns Landfill; efforts for dam removal at Smith Lake; non-native, invasive vegetation—Yellow Iris—reed canary grass—purple loosestrife; habitat destruction; Multnomah County Drainage District #1—levies; habitat on the Slough; pollution on the Slough; combined sewer overflows (CSOs); City of Portland and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality; Buffalo Slough Sediment Study; pollutants (PCBs, DDT); citizen response to local, state and federal agencies; use of methane gas from landfill at Ashgrove Cement; Forty Mile Loop; regional environmental management—Metro; Leadbetter Peninsula—filling wetlands; founding of the Friends of Smith & Bybee Lakes; Jim Morgan; St. Johns Neighborhood Association; public participation in decision-making; Mike Burton, Metro Executive Director; Marine Drive project—public opposition to industrial development; Port of Portland; jail on the Slough; Multnomah County relationship with Friends of Smith & Bybee Lakes; Rivergate; Radio Towers; citizen activism; Friends supporters—CSWC—Audubon Society—Wetlands Conservancy;
Tape 2 Contents:
Interviewer and narrator move to boat launch area near St. Johns Landfill, on the Slough. Waterway restoration—Halton Company—Atlas—Copco Wagner; Columbia Slough Regatta—view illegal fill; Oregon Division of State Lands (DSL); fishing in the Slough; pollution in the Slough; signs on the Slough—Hmong—Vietnamese—eastern Europeans—Cambodian—Cyrillic Russian; contaminated fish; wildlife in the City of Portland (deer track on the Slough); wildlife corridors; Columbia Delta; Columbia Corridor.
2772.19 David Eatwell interview by Donna Sinclair , 1999-11
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 15 pages.Biography and Description: David Eatwell was born August 31, 1949 in Lebanon, Oregon. He graduated from Salem High School and attended Willamette University before joining the U.S. Air Force in 1968. In 1991, Eatwell moved from Houston, Texas back to Oregon, and in 1992 he purchased a house in the Kenton Neighborhood. At the time of this interview, he served as the Kenton Neighborhood Association Community Coordinator and was involved with developing the Kenton Action Plan.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-11
Biographical information; professional life—television; neighborhood involvement—causes; Kenton Neighborhood Association—involvement—community representation—community outreach; rowing park on the Columbia Slough; neighborhood relationship to the Slough; Columbia Slough Watershed Council involvement; organizations involved with the Columbia Slough—Bureau of Environmental Services—Friends of Smith & Bybee Lakes—Audubon Society; historic changes in the Slough; Lightrail—North Interstate Max—attitudes toward; community vision—Kenton Action Plan; Denver Avenue—crime; businesses leaving Kenton; stores in Kenton—Safeway—Fred Meyer—poor produce; class divisions; housing costs, 1990s; Kenton neighborhood—crime—code enforcement—use of nuisance laws—landlord notification—safety—history of—changes in—community response; attitudes toward North Portland; environmental racism—and automobile exhaust—and location of the St. Johns Landfill; Houston, Texas—lack of services; transportation issues; Fourth of July concerts—Kenton Neighborhood; community recreation; urban renewal; property values; rental properties—Kenton; Columbia Slough Regatta—description of—agencies involved—history of; Columbia Slough—pollution—fishing.
2772.20 Chee Choy interview by Donna Sinclair , 2000-05
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 14 pages.Biography and Description: Chee Choy was born on June 5, 1959 in Guadalumpur, Malaysia. He worked for the Malaysian Department of Environment for approximately four-and-a-half years before coming to the United States in 1985 to attend graduate school at Washington State University. He also attended the Oregon Graduate Institute, and began working for the City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services in 1992.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-05
Biographical information; education; involvement with the Columbia Slough; Northwest Environmental Advocates—lawsuit; Columbia Slough—sediment contamination—and Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)—and combined sewer overflows (CSOs)—and fishing—and race relations—and swimming—and toxicity—and science; Columbia Slough Sediment Project; citizen's groups and environmental action; impressions of the Slough; Susan Barthel; Michael Houck; Columbia Corridor Association—Edna Cahoo; Bureau of Environmental Services—and business—and public perception; Columbia Slough Watershed Council; fishing on the Columbia Slough—and community education—and immigrants (Hispanic—Eastern European—Russian—Romanian—Southeast Asian)—and African Americans—and health risks—and economic issues (class)—and risk reducing methods—and Oregon Health Department recommendations—and community response—and women; International Refugee Center of Oregon (IRCO); Don Frances; funding community outreach efforts; cancer risks from contaminated fish; PCBs; toxicity and human health.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-05
Vision for future of the Columbia Slough; challenge and obstacles in working on Slough issues; environmental racism; community outreach efforts—and Asian culture—and the Columbia Slough Watershed Council.
2772.21 Victor Nelson interview by Donna Sinclair , 2000-02
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 7 pages.Biography and Description: Victor Nelson was born April 12, 1930 in Portland, Oregon and has been a property owner in the Kenton Neighborhood where he grew up for most of his life. Nelson grew up in the Kenton Neighborhood and attended Kenton Grade School. In 1923, his family purchased Kenton Machine Works, which serviced most of the industries located along Columbia Boulevard, from Union Avenue to St. Johns, including packing houses, slaughter houses, hog farms, shingle mills, and saw mills. In the 1990s Kenton Machine Works became employee owned, and Nelson retired, although at the time of this interview he continued to take an advisory role in its operations.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-02
Kenton—description of—changes in—decline in; Columbia Slough—and industry—and pollution—and description of (1940s)—and cleanup; Columbia Boulevard; Pacific International Livestock Exhibition—description of (1940s); Red Steer Café; Vanport, Oregon—description of—transportation; Jantzen Beach; Denver Avenue; Vanport Flood—description after flood—and dikes in North Portland; Kenton Businessmen's Club; Oregon Centennial (1959); Paul Bunyan statue in Kenton; North Portland Business Association; Kenton Action Plan; North Portland businesses—Beal Tank & Pipe—Malarkey, M&M Woodworking; Kenton Machine Works—impact of industrial demise—and changes in machine shops—and globalization; Lightrail.
2772.22 Michael C. Houck interview by Donna Sinclair , 2000-01
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 11 pages. Newspaper article.Biography and Description: Michael C. Houck was born in Portland, Oregon in 1947 and after moving around the country as a child, he returned to Oregon in 1961 and attended high school in Estacada, Oregon. He obtained a degree in Zoology from Iowa State University and a master's in science and teaching in biology from Portland State University. He then worked for OMSI as director of their community research center, taught for two years at Oregon Episcopal School, and began working for the Audubon Society in 1980. As part of his work on a project he called "Wild in the City: What's in Your Own Backyard?" Mike Houck became involved with pollution issues on the Columbia Slough. He has also been involved in Oregon Land Use Planning, the Forty Mile Loop, and Metro Greenspaces.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01
Biographical information; involvement with environmental issues; Audubon Society—response in North Portland; Metro Greenspaces—and the Columbia Slough—and the Forty Mile Loop—history of—and Houck's involvement—and regional parks management—and individuals involved with inception—and the Audubon Society; Columbia Slough—and image—and North Portland—and toxic sediments—and development; Upper Columbia Slough—Alice Blatt—Alice Cohen—Sherman Cohen; Fairview Lake—Jane Graybill; Peter Tenow—and Audubon Society; youth in Portland; Susan Chandler; first awareness of the Columbia Slough; Smith & Bybee Lakes—and development—and pollution; Brian Campbell, Port of Portland; Mike Burton; Mikey Jones; Rivergate—the Biddle estate—Willamette University; Dave Marshall; Tom McAllister; Wild in the City; Columbia Slough Watershed Council; Troy Clark; regional natural resources management; Forty Mile Loop—history of—and Olmsted; Metro 20-40 Growth Management Plan; regional waterways—Fanno Creek—Johnson Creek; Bureau of Environmental Services; Columbia Slough Watershed Council; fishing in the Slough; Don Frances; Slough politics—and the Port of Portland—and Rivergate; Kelly Point Park; change in image for the Columbia Slough; Pam Arden; environmental politics—and Bud Clark—and adopting the blue heron as Portland's city bird—and Metro Goal 5; natural habitat corridor.
2772.23 Nina Bell interview by Donna Sinclair , 2000-04
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 16 pages. Research materials—citizen action suits filed by Nina Bell and Northwest Environmental Advocates.Biography and Description: Nina Bell was raised in Seattle and went to Portland to attend Reed College, later attending Lewis & Clark Law School. At the time of this interview, she was executive director of Northwest Environmental Advocates, a position held since 1988. By implementing Clean Water Act programs and spearheading litigation through NWEA, she has represented environmental interests in regional and national negotiations.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-04
Childhood—and environmental consciousness—and environmental politics; family work on Amchitka Nuclear Blast; interest in water quality issues; report on water quality in the Columbia River; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)—305 reports; Clean Water Act—enforcement of—and citizen suits; National Estuary Program; Governor Barbara Roberts; Lower Columbia River Estuary Program—and Willamette River—and Columbia Slough; involvement with Northwest Environmental Advocates (NWEA)—called Coalition for Safe Power; Reed College; recollections of the Columbia Slough; Mikey Jones; Kelly Point Park; Combined sewer overflows (CSOs); Riverwatch; fishing in the Slough—and race—and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality; Toxic Waters Map—agency response—and the Oregonian—and environmental racism; Fred Hansen; environmental politics—and government inertia; contamination in the Columbia Basin; community outreach—and warning signs on the Columbia Slough—and Richard Brown, Black United Front—and the City of Portland; Willamette River cleanup; relations between the City of Portland's Bureau of Environmental Services and Northwest Environmental Advocates; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Columbia Slough Sediment Project; the Slough as a Superfund site; NWEA lawsuit; significance of citizen action suits; environmental legislation—and government commitments; total maximum daily loads (TMDLs); Environmental Quality Commission; Multnomah County Drainage District #1 (MDD#1)—and implementing environmental regulations.
Tape 2 Contents: , 2000-04
Clean Water Act—enforcement—as a starting point for action; Port of Portland—political power—de-icing fluids; combined sewer overflows (CSOs); Columbia Slough—critical issues—contamination—vision for future; Lower Columbia estuary; Columbia Slough Watershed Council—composition; Columbia Slough Regatta; Northwest Environmental Advocates—activities.

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Series D::  Cottage Grove, Oregon Community Histories

11 Interviews (14 cassette tapes) 2351, 2351.1, 2353, 2354, 2358, 2360-2366.

Container(s)
Description
cassette
2351.1 Printed material from Center for Columbia River History Web Site. Portions of Web Site that use quotes from oral histories collected for the Cottage Grove Community History Project. Written and constructed by Katrine Barber. Edited by Laurie Mercier.
2351 Dorothy Crha interview by Katrine Barber , 1999-10
1 sound cassette (ca. 40 minutes): analog.Biography and Description: At the time of this interview, Dorothy Crha was a small business owner in Cottage Grove, Oregon. She and her husband owned the Cottage Grove Comfort Inn and a gift shop, just off of Interstate 5. She moved to the Cottage Grove area in 1960 when her former husband, a timber faller, went to work for Weyerhauser. Dot Crha worked as a meat wrapper for Lucky Market and then with her second husband developed a trophy shop and a gift shop, out of which developed the Comfort Inn.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Logging industry—moved from Olympic Peninsula; downturn in logging industry; Georgia Pacific; Weyerhauser; beginning the trophy shop; developing the trophy shop business; trophies—materials used—changes in materials used—how built—types; gift shop—beginnings; decision to build a hotel; hotel ownership—daughter's involvement—clientele—employees; work ethics—generational differences; community involvement and economic support; timber industry decline—lack of effect on Crha's family; community composition; Cottage Grove Chamber of Commerce; timber strike (1980s)—impacts; taxes and small business ownership; transportation—between Eugene and Cottage Grove—Lane Community College; community relationship with Eugene; changes in Cottage Grove—Walmart; purchasing locally—supporting the community; 1964 Flood—brief recollection; 1996 Flood—worked with Red Cross; advice to teens; outmigration from Cottage Grove; reflections.
2353 Claire Dross interview by Katrine Barber , 2000-01
1 sound cassette (ca. 50 minutes): analog. Sound quality poor.Biography and Description: Claire Dross and her husband moved to Cottage Grove in 1991 from Santa Rosa California when they retired.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01
Move to Cottage Grove, Oregon—reasons—first recollections—residents' response; changes in community since 1991—timber industry decline; community involvement—Selection Committee—Humane Society—Silk Creek Neighbors Friendship Club; retirement—activities; Dorena Dam; 1996 Flood; education in Cottage Grove—disappointment; transportation—public bussing; employment opportunities—Cottage Grove—Eugene; differences between Cottage Grove and Santa Rosa; social life in Cottage Grove; development in Cottage Grove; settling into the community; snowstorm; the weather.
2354 Marie Geer interview by Katrine Barber , 1999-08
1 sound cassette (ca. 35 minutes): analog.Biography and Description: Marie Geer grew up in Hebron, Oregon, a small community a few miles south of Cottage Grove. Her father worked in the logging industry as a log raft operator and he and her father worked at the Woodard Mill. Hebron was dispersed by the Army Corps of Engineers to make way for Cottage Grove Dam in the 1940s.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-08
Book about Hebron; Hebron settlers; impact of dams on Hebron—moving homes—buildings—property destruction—community loss; wedding anniversary in Hebron Grange Hall; community relations in Hebron; transportation changes; the Great Depression; Woodard Mill—Woodard flume—destruction of—use of flume timbers in home; Cottage Grove Lake; family life—aging—changes; domestic relations—homemaker—gardening—childrearing—canning; community relations—during illness—friendships—transience—at time of interview; Cottage Grove dam construction—flooding; Hebron Dam; dam construction—compensation; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; response to dams; expansion and development of Cottage Grove; community changes; Frank and Grace Lablue; agriculture and dairy farming; logging—father ran log rafts; electrification.
2358 Herschel Henderly interview by Katrine Barber , 1999-10
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 9 pages.Biography and Description: Herschel Henderly has overseen the Cottage Grove and Dorena dams for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers since 1980.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Dam construction—earth fill and concrete control—regulating outlets—gates—uncontrolled spillways—cress gates; storms and flooding—the 1996 flood event—remote control—hundred year floods—flood control capacity—accumulated debris; recreational use at dams—camping; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; regulatory enforcement problems— strategies and solutions; user fees; Cadet Program.
2360 Juanita Hensley interview by Kathy Tucker , 1999
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. No Transcript.Biography and Description: Juanita Hensley has lived in the Cottage Grove area for her entire life and at the time of this interview lived in a home built by her parents. Her father was the logging superintendent and partner in Rickini Lumber Company, Inc. Hensley also worked as a bookkeeper at Rickini during the company's first years of operation. After her children were grown she operated her own bookkeeping and tax service.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999
Grew up in North Douglas County—Drain—father in logging business—Bohemia— bought business; changes in the area—prices for logs and land; the dams in the area—reservoir—road built—flooding; effects of the dam—recreational opportunities; issues in the area—schools—Woodard Logging Company—accident and insurance—effects of building the freeway—downtown changes; Cottage Grove—contemporary issues—effects of environmental regulations—job loss—salvage areas—environmental groups—Native Americans—minorities—philosophies.
2361 Carol Logan interview by Katrine Barber , 2000-01
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog.Biography and Description: Carol Logan grew up on the Grande Ronde Reservation. At the time of this interview, she was raising her grandchildren in Springfield, Oregon, and was active in the wider Willamette Valley community.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 2000-01
Concerns for indigenous people and the land—growing up on Grand Ronde Reservation; changes for Native Americans; racism; non-Indian values; casinos; dams; water crisis; flooding; profit motive in developing the land; burial concerns; native plants; education and indoctrination in schools; lack of community response to social issues; loss of indigenous values; forest destruction; racial differences; recognition for Native Americans.
2362 Evelynne Plueard by Katrine Barber , 1999-10
1 sound cassette (ca. minutes): analog.Biography and Description: Evelynne Plueard moved to Cottage Grove with her husband (a native) from a berry farm near Lebanon, Oregon in Linn County. She lived in downtown Cottage Grove for eighteen years, but moved above Cottage Grove Dam in 1960. Her husband worked for Weyerhauser, as did her son and his wife. Mrs. Plueard, an artist, has volunteered in the community, teaching pottery and drawing, among other things, to the area's school children. She was 79 years old at the time of this interview.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Background—homemaker and mother; husband worked in the wood products industry; area before the dams—floods; uses of the dams—recreation; attraction to the area—open space; community geography—Soda Springs—London; changes in the area—bedroom community—downtown—loss of hospital; community needs—schools—adapting to changes; travel.
2363 Charles Plummer by Katrine Barber , 1999-08
2 sound cassettes (ca. 120 minutes): analog.Biography and Description: Charles Plummer lived in Cottage Grove for much of his life. He began working for his uncle, a gyppo logger, at age seventeen and later worked for Weyerhauser. At the time of this interview Plummer was retired and lived half-time in Cottage Grove, half-time in Yuma, Arizona.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-08
Early memories of Cottage Grove and Dorena—flooding; dams—construction—removal; logging—transportation—sawmills—and independent loggers—and salvage regulations; environmentalists—protests; logging as farming; clearcuts; mill wages; strikes; Weyerhaeuser—shutdowns—unions; changes in the area—bus line from Eugene (transportation); Bohemia Days; hospital closure; schools changing—lack of discipline.
2364 Retta Smith interviewed by Kathy Tucker , 1999-10
2 sound cassettes (ca. 120 minutes): analog.Biography and Description: Retta Smith was raised in Lebanon, Oregon and has lived in the Cottage Grove area for more than 40 years. She moved to Cottage Grove to live with her newly married older sister, Evelynne Pleuard shortly before the onset of World War II.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Early years; Dorena Dam—floods; boardwalks in Cottage Grove; father, a dairy farmer; crop rotation; raising berries; home construction with material from old houses out of Dorena Lake; wringer washers; building the dam—pouring the cement; husband worked in the woods—choker setter—the donkey; recreation on Dorena Lake—fishing—board skiing; changes in the area; living by the dam—roar of water—fears; flooding in Glenwood—row boats in Cottage Grove; the Columbus Day Storm.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10
Community growth; getting a divorce—women's issues—going to work—financial support—difficulties—support system; benefits of living in a small community.
2365 Carlton Woodard interview by Katrine Barber , 1999-10
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes each): analog. Transcript, 1 page.Biography and Description: Carlton Woodard grew up in Cottage Grove during the Great Depression and started the Kenwood Company.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Youth—the Great Depression—mill shuts—family lives in boxcars; Bradley-Woodard Lumber Company; Cottage Grove dam; Dorena Dam; effects of dam building; family's history in the area; changes in Cottage Grove over the years—effects of the freeway—economic downturn—mills close—environmental laws; changes in the forest products industry—lumber transportation—railroads—quitting school to go to work; flumes; hospital closure—government regulations for Medicare payments; Woodard Family Foundation—library project; plywood and particleboard products—finishing machines; O & C Land—history of land management—bids and sales—economizing in lumber business—kurfs made thinner—government versus private land management; unions—company management—medical benefits.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-10
Old lumber companies—practices and changes—Heath Lumber Company; gyppo loggers; sale to Weyerhaeuser; log pond rotation—mixing log sizes—green chains; existing mills—tooled for small logs; future of Cottage Grove—local schools—smaller communities—education and opportunities—retirees—Middlefield Village; challenges of running a family foundation; resource management—Eastern dominance in Western United States— recreation—managing land as a crop; impact of big cities on small towns.
2366 Isabelle Woolcott by Kathy Tucker , 1999-10
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 2 pages.Biography and Description: Isabelle Woolcott moved to Cottage Grove at age four when her father relocated the family to open a meat market downtown. Woolcott attended business college in Portland, Oregon, then returned to Cottage Grove to work as a bookkeeper at Dougherty Lumber Company in 1939. Eighteen years later she began working for the South Lane School District where she worked for 20 years. At the time of this interview she lived in downtown Cottage Grove and was the chair of the Cottage Grove Museum Committee.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-10
Moved to the Delight Valley area in 1919—family from Albany and Leona; Cottage Grove Museum; early Cottage Grove memories—changes in the town—games children played—parades—businesses—entertainment; business college experiences; Dougherty Lumber Company—wholesale—poles for shipping—lumber stock depletion—small mill closure forces closure; lumber business today; millrace waterway; strikes; unions; logging Mt. David; effects of dam on area—Mathews Flour Mill—fording river—floods; Dorena Dam; Cottage Grove Dam; employment—as school secretary; the Great Depression—wages for baby sitting—wages at a sawmill—café work—bakery—National Recovery Act—Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC); the Cottage Grove Hotel—Buster Keaton; issues in Cottage Grove—schools—retirees—as a bedroom community for Eugene—Sera Gorda complex—freeway and bridges; historic district; downtown association; hospital; effects of growth in area.

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Series E::  Sandpoint, Idaho Community Histories

4 Interviews (6 cassette tapes). 2352, 2355, 2256, 2359.

Container(s)
Description
cassette
2352.1 Printed material from Center for Columbia River History Web Site. Portions of Web Site that use quotes from oral histories collected for the Sandpoint Community History Project. Written and constructed by Katrine Barber. Edited by Laurie Mercier.
2352 Jonathan Coe interview by Katrine Barber , 1999-04
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 8 pages.Biography and Description: Jonathan Coe is a former Executive Director of the Sandpoint Chamber of Commerce and was Executive Director of the Coeur d'Alene Chamber of Commerce at the time of this interview.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Sandpoint business community—problems—unemployment—timber—tourism; strategies for economic growth—festivals—grants for marketing—recreational opportunities—three-legged stool (timber, tourism and light manufacturing); changes in the Sandpoint community—Coldwater Creek—retail—Kmart—Walmart; image problems from Aryan Compound and human rights issues; Ruby Ridge; Mark Fuhrman; Richard Butler; America's Promise Church; Aryan Nation parade; strategies for change—public relations campaign—Bonner County Human Rights Task Force—Chamber of Commerc response—Northwest Coalition Against Malicious Harassment; press attention—racism—Ben Stein—community response; Sandpoint Unlimited.
2355 Paul Graves interview by Katrine Barber , 1999-05
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 Minutes each): analog. Transcript, 10 pages.Biography and Description: Paul Graves is a United Methodist Church minister and at the time of this interview was a member of the Bonner County Human Rights Task Force in Sandpoint, Idaho.
cassette
Tapes 1 & 2 Contents: , 1999-05
Aryan Nation of Hayden Lake; Northwest Coalition of Malicious Harassment; America's Promise; Christian Identity movement; David Barley; 11th Hour Remnant Messenger; homosexuality; Aryan Nation march; minorities and racism; community response to Aryan Nations—Bill Wassmith—education and advocacy through forums; Montana Association of Churches—church statement—resistance—fears.
2356 Brenda Hammond interview by Katrine Barber , 1999-05
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 12 pages.Biography and Description: Brenda Hammond was formerly the president of the Bonner County Human Rights Task Force in Sandpoint, Idaho.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-05
Issues in Sandpoint—Kootnay County Task Force—the Aryan Nations in Hayden Lake—Christian Identity Church and Dave Barley—Richard Butler—human rights issues; community involvement—Buzz Ardnt—the Northwest Coalition of Seattle—the Coalition for Human Dignity—rallies—Mark Fuhrman—racial minorities in Sandpoint—the anti-Gay initiative—homophobia—PFLAG—Lewis Beam of the Ku Klux Klan arrives—public response—Sandpoint High School—web sites; goals—changing image—the Universal Declaration of Human Rights—human rights and economic justice issues—Institute for Human Rights Education.
2359 Gretchen Hellar interview by Katrine Barber , 1999-04
2 sound cassettes (ca. minutes): analog. Transcript, 11 pages.Biography and Description: Gretchen Hellar was the Human Rights Task Force president in Sandpoint, Idaho at the time of this interview.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Task Force goals—creating a hate-proof community; stakeholders—Richard Butler—the Eleventh Hour Messenger—POACT—Community Assistance League—minorities; Task Force—community activism.

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Series F::  Umatilla Community Histories

14 Interviews (17 cassette tapes). 2771-2771.15.

Container(s)
Description
cassette
2771 Printed material from Center for Columbia River History Web Site. Portions of Web Site that use quotes from oral histories collected for the Umatilla Community History Project. Written and constructed by Donna Sinclair. Edited by Laurie Mercier.
2771.1 Thomas Morning Owl by Donna Sinclair , 1999-04
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 11 pages.Biography and Description: Thomas Morning Owl's family roots are in the town of Umatilla. At the time of this interview, Thomas Morning Owl worked in the language program on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and was a member of the Cultural Resources Commission. He has also been active in tribal politics and cultural revitalization on the Umatilla Reservation.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Family background; Umatilla, Oregon Townsite; election to Tribal Board of Trustees; Leatt Joe (grandmother); Niktoway—Columbia Joe (great grandfather); Patterson, Washington; islands in the Columbia River; meaning of the word Umatilla; Inez Spino; Maude Joe; Dr. Leroy Allen—Umatilla excavation (UM-35); repatriation; tribal interest in the Umatilla townsite; traditional use of Umatilla site; Native American Graves and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA); archeology at Umatilla—native sentiment toward; "potholing"; Laura Kradatsky; Tribal Development Office; Antone Minthorn; Colonel Dick Kopecki; city of Umatilla and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; historic use of Umatilla townsite; city of Umatilla; Blalock Island; Tom Joe; removal of Umatillas to the reservation; George Spino; Susie Joe; Annie Joe; Dr. Bruce Rigsby; Umashaat; languages—Umatilla—Cayuse; Blood Reserve, Southern Alberta, Canada—Blackfeet; John Day Dam; language retention—cultural significance; cultural revitalization on the Umatilla Reservation.
2771.2 Sam Nobles by Donna Sinclair , 1999-03
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 18 pages.Biography and Description: Sam Nobles went to Umatilla, Oregon in 1943 when his family purchased a farm. They worked in the cattle and agricultural industry, and Nobles became a livestock brand inspector. He retired in 1988.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-03
Family move to Umatilla, Oregon from Enterprise, Oregon; dairy farming; childhood on the farm; farm description; crops raised; local dairy production—operations; dairying in Umatilla County; biography; Umatilla High School during the building of McNary Dam; family history; Umatilla Ordnance Depot; Bureau of Reclamation; irrigated agriculture—Umatille—Hermiston—Columbia Basin; harvesting melons; small farms; agricultural base of Umatilla County; corporate farming; changes in Umatilla during building of McNary Dam—after the dam was built; work in agriculture while in high school; Umatilla Ferry; daily life around Umatilla; losing the dairy farm—replacement with rock crusher; Umatilla Sagerider's Club (rodeos); Umatilla Rodeo; impact of John Day Dam on town of Umatilla—loss of historic buildings; 4H; impact of federal funds in Umatilla; education; Umatilla School Board.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-03
Education in eastern Oregon; Three Mile Dam; McNary Dam; Umatilla Basin Project (not native); Irrigon Canal; Umatilla salmon; John Day Dam—impact on town of Umatilla.
2771.3 George Hash by Donna Sinclair , 1999-03
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 7 pages.Biography and Description: George Hash was mayor of Umatilla, Oregon at the time of this interview. He and his family went to Umatilla in the early 1950s after the building of McNary Dam. He worked as a school teacher, first in Umatilla, then in Hermiston.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-03
Vanport, Oregon; military service - WWII; being a prisoner of war; move to Umatilla; city politics—Umatilla; city interaction with federal government; Oregon Irrigator's Association; dam breaching—impact on Umatilla; agriculture and transportation—barging—truck traffic; work in construction; John Day Dam—impact on Umatilla; Umatilla Army Depot—incineration project—community impact; Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)—planning in Umatilla, Oregon; Toelle, Utah; Umatilla Women's Prison—bid for prison; prisons as industry.
2771.4 Donna Fuzi by Donna Sinclair , 1999-04
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 14 pages.Biography and Description: Donna Fuzi was raised in the Hermiston—Echo—Stanfield Oregon area. At the time of this interview, she had worked at the Umatilla Army Depot in Hermiston, Oregon for nearly twenty years and was involved with a chemical weapons incineration project.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Family history—eastern Oregon; youth; joining the army; hired at Umatilla Army Depot, 1979; experiences at depot as a child; training as a guard at the Depot; chemical weapons—types of; history of the Umatilla Depot; living conditions at the Depot; Ordnance, Oregon; J.J. Turteling—Turtletown; education; hiring practices at the Depot; jobs held at the Depot—Quality Assurance—Public Affairs—Chief of Chemical Preparedness; public perspective of the Depot; ; Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP); Depot—safety plans; chemical weapons, 1970s—public response—composition—design—effects of exposure; Operation Golden Cargo, 1988; conventional weapons—design; incineration project—history—public response; weapons storage—conditions—monitoring—safety issues—weather; WWII accident at Army Depot; wildlife at the Depot; use of Depot when dismantling (incinerator project) is completed; transporting ammunition; McNary Dam.
2771.5 Donna Fuzi by Donna Sinclair , 1999-03
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 11 pages.Biography and Description: Jeff Van Pelt, of Umatilla descent, worked in the Department of Natural Resources on the Umatilla Indian Reservation at the time of this interview.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-03
Training as an archeologist; work with USDA Forest Service; work with Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation through Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act; impact of Columbia River dams on native culture—eradication of place; attitudes toward native culture; co-management; traditional philosophies; Native Americans—loss of history; cultural genocide; attitudes toward non-Indians; Treaty of 1855 (Walla Walla); intercultural communication; native response to treaties; salmon, dams, and Native Americans; cultural significance of the Umatilla townsite; Umatilla River—salmon re-population (Umatilla Basin Project); inundation of place—cultural significance; capitalist system—impact on human community; personal attitude toward mainstream American culture; human interaction with nature; reserved treaty rights; attitudes toward treaties; youth; ancestral connection on the reservation; tribal resistance.
2771.6 Roy Gunsolley by Donna Sinclair , 1999-03
2 sound cassettes (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 11 pages.Biography and Description: Roy Gunsolley and his wife, Evie, went to Umatilla, Oregon in 1956. Roy operated a service station, and the family opened a successful drive-in restaurant in the 1970s, still operated by their son at the time of this interview. Gunsolley has acted as a volunteer policeman in the city of Umatilla and served on both the city council and the volunteer fire department when John Day Dam was built.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-03
Biographical information; move to Umatilla, 1956; truck traffic, 1950s; transportation—eastern Washington (Tri-Cities) and Oregon; drive-in restaurant; community activities—police department—city council (1960s); John Day Dam—US Army Corps of Engineers negotiations with community members—fire fighting practice in old town; Umatilla Army Depot; railroad expansion, Hinkle; wine industry—Columbia Basin; salmon counting; dams—impact on fishing; lower Umatilla—disposal of townsite; ecological protections in Oregon; landscape change near Umatilla.
Tape 2 Contents: , 1999-03
Pivot irrigation systems; Bill McLanahan; Ray Dunn; circle irrigation.
2771.7 Margaret D'Estrella by Donna Sinclair , 1999-03
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 14 pages.Biography and Description: Margaret D'Estrella's family lived in and around Umatilla throughout her life. The Portland Seattle Spokane Railroad and agricultural opportunities brought her family to the region near the turn of the century (1905). At one point in the 1930s, her family also lived on Blalock Island in the middle of the Columbia River. D'Estrella spent part of her adult life away from Umatilla, returning in the 1969 to find a changed community after the building of dams on the Columbia.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-03
Family history; Portland Seattle Spokane Railroad; return to Umatilla in 1969—visible changes in the landscape —townsite; interactions with Native Americans; changes in the Columbia and Umatilla Rivers; Celilo Falls—Indian fishing; Umatilla Ferry; work as aquatic instructor; real estate transactions (family) in Umatilla; work at Oregon Ship, WWII; housing at McNary, Oregon (from WWII housing in Portland); transportation, eastern Oregon to Portland, 1930s; living on Blalock Island (1930s)—mining—description of island—growing peaches—school; Dr. Blalock; Patterson, Washington; living in Hermiston, Oregon—Umatilla Ordnance Depot; work history—Kaiser Shipyards—child care; St. Johns Neighborhood, WWII; parenting.
2771.8 Gloria Lampkin and Ernabel Mittelsdorf by Donna Sinclair , 1999-04
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 16 pages.Biography and Description: Gloria Lampkin moved from Missouri to Stanfield, Oregon in the late 1940s and her father worked at the Umatilla Army Depot. She began working as an administrative assistant at McNary Dam in 1953, retiring from her position in 1990. Ernabel Mittelsdorf was born in Boardman, Oregon, and lived there when the town was moved due to John Day Dam construction. She worked with Gloria Lampkin at McNary Dam from the early 1950s until 1990 when she also retired.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Gloria Lampkin—biographical information; GL—employment at McNary Dam; McNary Dam dedication—work involved—description; McNary Townsite—description; housing during dam construction; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—housing—operations—management; USACE district headquarters—Walla Walla District; fish facilities—ladders—operators; guards at McNary Dam; U.S. Army; Umatilla Ferry; Ian Pinkboilen; Columbia River—freezing—weather; changes in community after building McNary Dam; construction—mobility of workers; taverns; Boardman, Oregon—town removal—changes; Power City—naming contest; changes in administrative technology—working with computers; pigeon problem at McNary Dam—technological fix; dam construction—safety issues—accidents; meeting Mrs. Charles McNary; Janis Paige; Blalock Island; Pendleton Grain Growers—silos removed during John Day Dam construction.
2771.9 Guadalupe Escobedo by Donna Sinclair , 1999-11
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 10 pages.Biography and Description: Guadalupe Escobedo was born in San Francisco, California, January 5, 1965. Her family went to Umatilla, Oregon in the late 1970s when she was fourteen years old. Escobedo was among the first Latinos in the area. Both her parents worked in the food processing industry and as a teen she worked in the fields on weekends and during the summer. At the time of this interview, Guadalupe Escobedo had obtained her Master's degree and taught first grade in the Hermiston public schools.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-11
Moving to Umatilla; father's work—Simplot food processing plant; family members from Mexico working during harvest season; father migrates to United States with Bracero Program; illegal migrants; amnesty laws; Agri-Northwest—work as a teen; weeding—watermelon—wheat—onions—women; education; harvesting potatoes; Migrant Program—preschool program; labor conditions—safety; standard of living—Pacific Northwest versus San Francisco; bilingual education; teaching in Hermiston, Oregon; English Language Acquisition Program (ELAP); Latino migrants—reasons for leaving Mexico; responsibilities that come with educational success; Umatilla High School—few Latinos—dating; community changes; discrimination.
2771.10 Federico Ramos by Donna Sinclair , 1999-11
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. Transcript, 9 pages.Biography and Description: Federico Ramos was born in Jalisco, Mexico and migrated to the United States via California in the early 1990s. He moved to the Hermiston, Oregon area to work in the agricultural industry in 1992. At the time of this interview he worked as a temp for the Walmart Distribution Center in Hermiston and waited to obtain a more permanent position.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-11
Working in agriculture, Hermiston area; apple harvest; Potlatch; work at Walmart Distribution Center; Shady Brook Lambert; attitudes toward the United States; opportunities in the United States; changes in Hermiston; agricultural work—weeding—planting—pay—topping onions; pruning apples—description—considerations—types of; agricultural work—transportation—housing—food—health care—accidents—safety (chemicals); labor issues—strategies—negotiations; education; discrimination; Western Empire; opportunities in United States—education.
2771.11 Jose and Maria Rodriguez by Donna Sinclair , 1999-11
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. No Transcript. Interview in SpanishBiography and Description: Jose Rodriguez migrated to the United States with his father as a child during the Mexican Revolution. Maria Rodriguez was a Tejano, born in Texas. They migrated to the Umatilla Hermiston area in the 1940s to work in the agricultural industry and remained to raise their family.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-11
Jose—family history—migration to United States; Maria—family history; migrant experience; work performed in agricultural industry; family life; work experience.
2771.12 Keith Rodenbough , 1999-04
1 sound cassette (ca. 60 minutes): analog. No Transcript. See librarian for restrictions.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Family history; work as a river boat pilot on the Columbia River; navigating the Umatilla Rapids; McNary Dam; changes in Umatilla.
2771.13 Alva Stephens , 1999-04
1 sound cassette (ca. 30 minutes): analog. Transcript, 6 pages.Biography and Description: Alva Stephens, a long term Umatilla resident, was born in Portland, Oregon, February 17, 1927 and lived in Umatilla from the time he was in third grade. This is a recording of his recollections, based on a set of questions prepared for the Umatilla Community History Project.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-04
Family history; changes in the landscape—circle irrigation; changes in the weather; recollections of Old Umatilla; salmon in the Columbia and Umatilla Rivers; salmon—attitudes toward decline; Blalock Island; Umatilla Ferry; economic development in Umatilla; Umatilla Basin Project; Indian fishing; dam breaching; Native Americans in Umatilla; fish politics; John Day Dam drawdown; river management.
2771.14 Dottie Stephens by Donna Sinclair , 1999-03
1 sound cassette (ca.10 minutes): analog. Transcript, 2 pages.Biography and Description: Dottie Stephens, a long term Umatilla community member recorded her recollections for the Umatilla Community History Project.
cassette
Tape 1 Contents: , 1999-03
Family history—Ernest Red Reeves—migration to Umatilla; changes in Umatilla since childhood; buildings removed for dams—loss of history; McNary Dam.

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Subjects

The collection is indexed under the following headings in the online catalog. Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons, or places should search the catalog using these headings:

  • Corporate Names :
  • United States. Bonneville Power Administration--History
  • Geographical Names :
  • Camas (Wash.)--History
  • Columbia River Region--History
  • Columbia River Watershed--History
  • Columbia River--Power utilization--History
  • Columbia Slough (Or.)--History
  • Cottage Grove (Or.)--History
  • Sandpoint (Idaho)--History
  • Umatilla (Or.)--History
  • Subject Terms :
  • Dams--Columbia River Region--History
  • Dams--Oregon--History
  • Dams--Washington (state)--History
  • Hydroelectric power palnts--Columbia River Region--History
  • Water resources development--Columbia River Region--History
  • Water-power--Oregon--History
    • Form or Genre Terms :
    • Oral histories
    • Other Creators :
    • Center for Columbia River History
    • Oregon Historical Society

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