Guide to the William Thomas Lopp papers

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Overview of the Collection

Creator: Lopp, William Thomas, 1864-1939
Title: William Thomas Lopp papers
Dates: 1893-1939 ( inclusive )
Quantity: 3.0 linear feet (6 containers)
Collection Number: Ax 058
Summary: William Thomas Lopp (1864-1939) dedicated himself to improving the lives of Alaskan natives by establishing a Reindeer Station in Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, and by holding various government posts in education. During his career he established sixty-six schools, five hospitals and sanitation systems, and increased prosperity in the coastal villages of northern Alaska. The collecion includes journals, correspondence, and writings related to his work.
Repository: University of Oregon Libraries, Special Collections and University Archives.
Contact Information: UO Libraries--SPC, 1299
University of Oregon
Eugene OR
Telephone: 541-346-3068
Fax: 541-346-3485
Languages: Collection materials are in English. 
Sponsor: Funding for encoding this finding aid was provided through a grant awarded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Historical Note

William Thomas Lopp was born June 21, 1864 to Jacob C. and Lucinda Trotter Lopp in Harrison County, Indiana. He worked for six years as a teacher and principal in various Indiana schools, and was a superintendent and elder in the Presbyterian Church. He earned a B.A. at Indiana’s Hanover College in 1888.

In July 1890 Lopp arrived at Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska to teach at a mission school. Here he met Ellen Louise Kittredge, another trained teacher, and they married in 1892. Both dedicated themselves to learning the Eskimo languages and to understanding Eskimo lifeways. Seeing that Eskimo food sources were endangered by the encroachments of the burgeoning American and Canadian fishing industry, Lopp promoted reindeer herding among the native Alaskans as an alternative means of subsistence. In 1892 reindeer were brought over from Siberia and a Reindeer Station was established, of which Lopp was superintendent. He became known to the native whalers and fishermen of Alaska as the "Reindeer Man" and "Tomgorah," meaning "Tom-the-good-man."

In 1902 the Lopp family relocated to Seattle, although Lopp traveled between Seattle, Alaska and Washington D.C., working to improve the lives of Alaskan natives. He became superintendent of government schools (Native) and reindeer, northern district, of Alaska in 1904, and left that post in 1909. In 1910 he became chief of the Alaska division of the U.S. Bureau of Education, a post he held until 1923, after which he was superintendent of education of Natives of Alaska for two years. In 1925 he became a reindeer expert for Hudson’s Bay Company. In 1936, Lopp conducted a survey of the native Alaskan reindeer industry for the Indian Rights Association.

Throughout his years working with native Alaskans Lopp encouraged them to follow and care for the growing reindeer herds, assuring them and their children adequate food, clothing, and income. He developed the "endless chain" system of apprenticing young Eskimos to older reindeer herders and then giving the younger men a percentage of the increased herd. During his career Lopp established sixty-six schools, five hospitals and sanitation systems, and increased prosperity in the coastal villages of northern Alaska. William Thomas Lopp died on April 10, 1939, survived by his wife Ellen and eight children.

Content Description

The collection contains materials relating to William Thomas Lopp's experiences on the Alaskan frontier. The collection is divided into six series: Journals (1893-1936), Correspondence (1893-1939), Manuscripts, Subject Files, Printed Material, and Photographs.

Journals comprises notes from overland journeys and explorations.

Correspondence is divided into three subseries: General; Personal; and Eskimo letters. General correspondence is arranged chronologically, as is the series of personal correspondence.

Manuscripts contains Lopp’s notes for and drafts of various articles and publications. Of note within this section is the Log of the Overland Relief Expedition upon which Lopp's book, The Great Reindeer Drive, was based.

Subject Files contains correspondence and notes relating to the Indian Rights Association and the Hudson’s Bay Reindeer Investigation. There is also documentation, in the form of correspondence, documents and newspaper clippings, of the Lomen Controversy. (The Lomens were a powerful family who cheated the Indians of Alaska out of their land and reindeer herd rights.) This section also contains a folder of notes and memoranda on reindeer and another with notes on Eskimo language.

Printed Material includes newspaper clippings, newsletters, publications of the Commissioner of Education (Alaska office), reports of the governor of Alaska, a National Geographic article (“Reindeer in Alaska”), and various government documents. Reindeer herding figures can be found in the publications from the Alaska Office of the Commissioner of Education and reports from the Governor of Alaska.

The Photographs contains Lopp's collection of photographs of predominately Eskimo scenes, portraits and Alaskan landscapes also depicts Alaskan coastal life.

Use of the Collection

Restrictions on Access :  

Collection is open to the public.

Collection must be used in Special Collections & University Archives Reading Room.

Restrictions on Use :  

Property rights reside with Special Collections & University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries. Copyright resides with the creators of the documents or their heirs. All requests for permission to publish collection materials must be submitted to Special Collections & University Archives. The reader must also obtain permission of the copyright holder.

Archival may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal and/or state right to privacy laws and other regulations.

Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g. a cause of action for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of Oregon assumes no responsibility.

If a researcher finds sensitive personal information in a collection, please bring it to the attention of the reading room staff.

Preferred Citation :  

[Identification of item], William Thomas Lopp Papers, Ax 058, Special Collections & University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, Eugene, Oregon.

Administrative Information

Arrangement :

Collection is organized into the following series: Journals; Correspondence; Manuscripts; Subject Files; Printed Material; and Photographs.

Processing Note :  

Collection processed by staff.

This finding aid may be updated periodically to account for new acquisitions to the collection and/or revisions in arrangement and description.

Detailed Description of the Collection

1 1

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Biographical Materials
1 2

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Journals, 1893-1936
1 3 journal July 1893-January 1894
1 3 journal August 1894-June 1899
1 4 journal February 1897-May 1898
1 4 Journal [see also 3/13] February 1898-November 1898
1 4 journal December 1900-September 1901
1 5 journal June 1904-December 1904
1 5 journal January 1905-October 1905
1 5 journal June 1906-September 1906
1 5 journal November 1907-March 1908
1 5 journal 1911
1 6 journal 1923
1 6 journal [1923?]
1 6 journal January 1926-October 1926
1 6 journal August 1926-December 1926
1 6 journal [1928?]
1 7 journal 1934-1935
1 7 journal 1936
1 7 Excerpt of 1898 log dated April 1936 1936
1 8 Hunting logs

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Correspondence, 1893-1939
General correspondence
1 9 General correspondence 1893 1898-1902
1 10 General correspondence 1903-1904
1 11 General correspondence 1905-1906
2 1 General correspondence 1907
2 2 General correspondence January 1908-July 1908
2 3 General correspondence August 1908-December 1908
2 4 General correspondence 1909
2 5 General correspondence 1910-1911
2 6 General correspondence 1912-1914
2 7 General correspondence 1917-1920
2 8 General correspondence 1921-1923
2 9 General correspondence 1924
2 10 General correspondence 1925
2 11 General correspondence 1926-1927
2 12 General correspondence 1928-1932
2 13 General correspondence 1933-1939
Personal correspondence
2 14 American Missionary Association 1898-1907
2 15 Letters to Mrs. Ellen Louise Lopp (wife) 1904-1927
3 1 Neda Thornton 1900-1903 1927-1937
3 2 Sheldon Jackson 1902-1906
3 3 Clarence Andrews 1924-1927
3 4 Melba Call 1924-1936
3 5 Mrs. J.P. Newell 1936-1938
3 6 Other fragments and undated letters
Eskimo letters 1936-1938
3 7 A
3 8 B-N
3 9 O-R
3 10 S
3 11 T-U, fragments and undated letters

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3 12 Pioneer Education in Northwest Alaska (3 drafts), Pauperism in England and United States, The Reindeer Industry as a Practical Industrial (Vocational)?, Education for the Eskimos of Alaska, How Do Alaskan Natives Fare?
3 13 Log of the Overland Relief Expedition (served as basis for The Great Reindeer Drive), excerpts from log
3 14 Notes from log; Story of the Relief Expedition (draft version of The Great Reindeer Drive)
3 15 Notes on The Great Trek
Lopp appears to have been comparing the Doubleday, Doren & Co. publication about a 1929-1935 reindeer trek to his 1898 rescue trek.

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Subject files
Indian Rights Association
4 1 Correspondence [1 of 4] 1932-1938
4 2 Correspondence [2 of 4] 1932-1938
4 3 Correspondence [3 of 4] 1932-1938
4 4 Correspondence [4 of 4] 1932-1938
4 5 Notes
4 6 Hudson's Bay Reindeer Investigation, Correspondence and documents 1920-1936
4 7 Hudson's Bay Reindeer Investigation, Correspondence and documents 1920-1936
The Lomen Controversy
4 8 Correspondence and notes [1 of 2] 1917-1935
4 9 Correspondence and notes [2 of 2] 1917-1935
4 10 Newspaper clippings, brochure, documents
5 1 Reindeer industry notes
5 2 Eskimo vocabulary
5 3 Bureau of Education Alaska Division, personnel applications
5 4 Miscellaneous bills and receipts

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Printed Material
5 5 Newspaper clippings, newspapers and newsletters
5 6 Newsletters: Nome Gold Digger (1899); The Thlinget (1911); The News Letter (1912); Kake Weekly Progress (1933); Chitina Bulletin (1933)
5 Publications of the Commissioner of Education, (Alaska office) 1890-1922
6 Reports of the Governor of Alaska 1903-1935
6 1 "Reindeer in Alaska," G.H. Grosvenor of National Geographic (reprint) 1903
6 2 Government documents 1936-1937

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6 3 Buildings
6 4 Eskimos
6 5 Ships
6 6 Non-nature settlers
6 7 Alaska landscape scenes
6 8 Log structure
6 9 Eskimo school children; Ship at sea; J. Dewey Saper

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  • Personal Names :
  • Lopp, William Thomas, 1864-1939--Archives
  • Subject Terms :
  • Alaska--Discovery and exploration
  • Alaska--Photographs
  • Educators--Alaska
  • Eskimos--Alaska--Social life and customs
  • Missionaries--Alaska--Prince of Wales, Cape
  • Reindeer herding--Alaska
  • Reindeer industry--Alaska

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