Guide to the Fred W. Voget Papers
1935-1996

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Overview of the Collection

Creator: Voget, Fred W., 1913-1997
Title: Fred W. Voget Papers
Dates: 1935-1996 ( inclusive )
Quantity: 13.0 linear feet
Collection Number: Mss 318
Summary: This collection represents a large portion of the academic research and writing career of cultural anthropologist and American Indian ethnologist Fred W. Voget. Voget focused his research for many years on the Crow tribe of Montana.
Repository: Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library
Archives and Special Collections

The University of Montana--Missoula
Missoula, MT 59812
406-243-2053
http://www.lib.umt.edu/asc
library.archives@umontana.edu

Languages: Materials are in English 
Sponsor: Funding for encoding this finding aid was provided through a grant awarded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Biographical Note

Frederick William Voget, cultural anthropologist and American Indian ethnologist, was born in Salem, Oregon, on February 12, 1913. He was one of six children of Friedrich A. Voget, who emigrated from Germany to Oregon when he was 19, and Fay Isham, whose grandparents were Oregon pioneers. Voget was educated in Portland public schools, attended Reed College, and graduated from the University of Oregon. He attended graduate school at Yale University and received a Ph.D. in Anthropology in 1947. Fred served in the 71st Division of the U.S. Infantry from 1942 to 1947 and was honorably discharged as a Master Sergeant. He married Mary Kay Mee in 1942 and they had three daughters, Antoinette, Colleen, and Jane. Mrs. Voget worked as Dr. Voget's research assistant throughout their many years together.

Dr. Voget's fieldwork and doctoral dissertation subjects were the Crow Indians of Montana. His dissertation, The Shoshoni-Crow Sun Dance, was published in 1984 in the Civilization of the American Indians Series, University of Oklahoma Press, and is the first full-length authoritative treatment of the Crow Sun Dance. Holt Rinehart published A History of Ethnology, an earlier book, in 1975. Recent contributions to new books include the introduction to Old Man Coyote and the foreword to Yellowtail, Crow Indian Medicine Man. His most recent book, They Call Me Agnes, was a finalist for the Western Writers of America Spur Award for the best non-fiction book of 1995. They Call Me Agnes, the life story of Agnes Yellowtail Deernose, a Crow Indian woman, was written with the assistance of his wife, Mary Kay Mee.

Dr. Voget was the author of many articles, notable among them "The Osage Indians, Osage Research Report" (New York, London, 1974) and "Crow Sacred Numerology" published in the Plains Anthropologist in 1996. His articles are also published in the 1996 Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology sponsored by Yale University.

Fred Voget taught at McGill University in Montreal, the University of Arkansas, the University of Toronto, and Southern Illinois University. He was a visiting professor at Northwestern University and Portland State University. In 1966 he won a Canada Council Research Grant to work with the Six Nations tribes of Eastern Canada. He was a Fulbright Scholar to Germany in 1972 and returned there in 1979 as a visiting professor at the University of Munich. After his retirement as Professor Emeritus from Southern Illinois University, Fred returned to Portland where he continued to write and lecture. He was an adjunct professor at Portland State University and was a guest lecturer at the University of Oregon and Linfield College.

Since 1939 Dr. Voget devoted his life and his research to recording and preserving the culture and way of life of the Crow as it was and is. His contribution to the study of ethnology was intended to improve the lives of American Indians and to promote understanding and respect for the diversity of cultures in the world. He was an adopted member of the Crow Tribe and spent part of every summer with them in Montana. Fred W. Voget died on 8, 1997

Content Description

This collection represents a large portion of the academic research and writing career of Fred W. Voget from his undergraduate years in the 1930s to a few years before his death in 1997. While the bulk of his research was focused on the Crow Tribe, the collection also includes secondary source research on numerous other North American tribes and primary source research on the Iroquois, Shoshoni, and Blackfeet Indians. Research specific to the Crow Tribe includes bibliographies, annotated photocopies of papers, book chapters, and articles, interviews spanning half of century from 1939 to 1993, and photographs from 1939 to 1987

Use of the Collection

Restrictions on Access :  

Researchers must use collection in accordance with the policies of Archives and Special Collections, the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, and The University of Montana--Missoula.

Restrictions on Use :  

Researchers are responsible for using in accordance with 17 U.S.C. and any other applicable statutes. Intellectual property rights transferred to the University of Montana.

Preferred Citation :  

[Name of document or photograph number], Fred W. Voget Papers, Archives and Special Collections, Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, The University of Montana--Missoula.

Administrative Information

Arrangement :

The collection is divided into six series:

Series I: General Anthropology and Native American research, undated, 0.7 linear feet

Series II: Crow Indian research, 5.0 linear feet, 1936-1995

Series III: Field research notebooks, 1.0 linear feet, 1949-1993

Series IV: Crow language research, 1.0 linear feet, undated

Series V: Writings, 2.3 linear feet, 1935-1996

Series VI: Photographs, 2.5 linear feet, 1939-1989

Custodial History :  

The materials in this collection were retained by the Voget Family until donation to the K. Ross Toole Archives.

Acquisition Information :  

Gift of Mary Kay Voget, 2001. Dissertation purchased in 2004.

Processing Note :  

Mary Kay Voget sorted and arranged significant portions of the collection before transfer to the K. Ross Toole Archives. This collection was processed at the K. Ross Toole Archives for the first time in 2001. When received, the majority of research notes were organized in card files or file folders. Where Voget had categorized materials by subject, the processor maintained those divisions and separated remaining materials into "to be filed" groups according to established categories. Additional photograph identifications were obtained from members of the Crow tribe, including Fred Voget Lefthand.


Detailed Description of the Collection

Series I:  General Anthropology and Native American research , undated
0.7 linear feet

This series includes notes and readings on anthropology theory and practice, bibliographies of anthropology readings, and a small amount of anthropology research notes. Additionally, the series has reading notes and bibliographies on a number of Native American tribes. The arbitrary arrangement begins with general anthropology and moves into broad Native American topics.

Container(s)
Description
Box/Folder
1/1 Anthropology theory notes , undated
1/2 Anthropology and ethnology theory notes , undated
1/3 General bibliography of anthropology and archeology readings , undated
1/4 Bibliography regarding culture, history, and evolution , undated
1/5 Card file of book release notices, various authors , undated
1/6 General anthropology notes regarding "constancy of problems" , undated
1/7 Anthropology graduate class planning notes , undated
1/8 Research notes, culture typology , undated
1/9 Shorthand practice notes , undated
1/10 Pamphlet, "A Preliminary Consideration of Areas of Africa" , 1924
1/11 Notes on Central Mexico cultures , undated
1/12 Notes and bibliography, South America , undated
1/13 Miscellaneous notes taken in Southwest Museum , December 1937
1/14 Report and discussion on Dobu Islanders, Apache Kinship, Australian Tribes, Primitive Behavior, and Iroquois Women , undated
1/15 Excerpt regarding Shawnee and Delaware Indians from unnamed report , undated
1/16 Pawnee, mimeographed information , undated
1/17 Arapahoe reading notes , undated
1/18 Kiowa reading notes , undated
1/19 Algonquin reading notes , undated
1/20 Native Americans, reading notes , undated
2/1 Brief news article on origin of corn, undated
2/2 Native American population according to 1910 census, undated
2/3 General Native American bibliography, undated
2/4 Bibliography, general Plains tribes, undated
2/5 Bibliography, brief, U.S. Government, undated
2/6 Bibliography, fur trade , undated

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Series II:  Crow Indian research , 1936-1995

This series includes bibliographies, research notes on readings, annotated and clean copies of materials, newspaper articles, contact information, and interview notes. The bulk of the series is Crow Indian research, but material such as interviews with Shoshoni tribe members have been included to duplicate Voget's synthesis of this research in his book The Shoshoni-Crow Sun Dance. While the broad order of this series is arbitrary, Voget's original card file order has been maintained. Cards in "to be filed" groups were filed according to established categories and notes not on cards have been inserted into separate folders according to those same categories or topics. Groupings of interviews have been maintained as much as possible.

Container(s)
Description
Box/Folder
2/7 Notes on Frank Bird Linderman's Red Mother, undated
2/8 Notes on 30, 1920 Report Commissioner of Indian Affairs, undated
2/9 Notes on Crow Indian Shelters and information on Fort Belnap Indian Arts and Crafts and the Blackfeet Indian Reservation , undated
2/10 Miscellaneous Crow research notes and memorabilia, undated
2/11 Crow names with abbreviations (informants), undated
2/12 Indian education specialist address & agency location note, undated
2/13 Crow Agency news articles , 1973, 1993
2/14 Crow news articles including reburial of Chief Black Foot, Donald Deernose obituary, and a Henrietta Whiteman profile, 1978, 1979
2/15 Miscelleaneous news articles, undated
2/16 References on Crow art, undated
2/17 List of museums, undated
2/18 Bibliography notes , undated
2/19 Early research bibliography on Crow, undated
2/20 Crow bibliography, alphabetized, undated
2/21 Crow bibliographical sources, no order, undated
2/22 Bibliography, Crow and other North American tribes, undated
3/1 Bibliography, Crow and other North American tribes, undated
3/2 Notes on "Phonetic Transcription of Indian Language," Report of Committee of AAA, original 1916, notes, undated
3/3 Pre-history notes and bibliography, Crow, undated
3/4 Notes from Blankets and Moccasins: Plenty Coups and his People, the Crows, author Gwendolin Damon Wagner, published 1936, undated
3/5 Notes from The Oregon Trail, author Francis Parkman, published 1931, undated
3/6 Notes from Meldrum's account in The Indian Journals, undated
3/7 Notes from Peter Nabakov's Two Leggings: The Making of a Crow Warrier, undated
3/8 List of some Crow clans , undated
3/9 Typed copies of various reservation agency reports , 1885-1894
3/10 Notes on Crow history , undated
3/11 Miscellaneous short notes, Crow , undated
3/12 Analysis of dating Crow-Hidatsa separation , 1991
3/13 Copy of article, "Notes on Crow-Hidatsa Schism" , 1977
3/14 Copy of chapters from The Crow Tribe of Indians by Norman Plummer , 1974
3/15 Copy of sections from Early Western Travels, Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed. 1904, 1966
3/16 Copies of articles on Plains Indians by J.D. Keyser, 1979, 1993
3/17 Annotated copy of "The Crow Migration Story," Archeology in Montana, 1979
3/18 Copy of "Ethnohistoric Problems in the Crow-Hidatsa Separation," Archaeology in Montana, 1979
3/19 Copy of "The North American Berdarche," from Current Anthropology, 1983
3/20 Copy of pages from The Missouri Indians, 1960
3/21 Annotated copy of portions of The Indian Journal by Lewis Henry Morgan, 1959
3/22 Copy of "Journal of Laroque" from Canadian Archives, 1911
3/23 Copy of chapters from Narratives of the Adventures of Zenas Leonard, 1934
3/24 Abstracts of papers from Montana Archeological Society Annual Meeting, 1978
3/25 Copy of "Plains Indian Sun/Dance," by Spier, 1921
3/26 B.I.A. "programming for Indian Social and Economic Improvement", 1956-04-12
3/27 Copy of M.A. Thesis "Abaatassheek: The Oilers, Pentecostalism Among the Crow Indians" , 1993
4/1 Annotated copy of "Apsaakisshe: A Description of the Crow Indian Sun Dance,", undated
John A. Grim
4/2 Annotated copies of portions of Indians in the Fur Trade, 1974
Arthur J. Ray
4/3 Annotated copy of pages from The Fur Trade in the Upper Missouri, 1840, 1865, 1965
John E. Sunder
4/4 Annotated copies of portions of The Missouri Fur Trade, 1840, 1865, undated
4/5 Annotated copies of chapters from Curtis's The North American Indian, undated
4/6 Annotated copy of "The Sundance" from Curtis's The North American Indian, undated
4/7 Annotated copy of "War and Chase" from Curtis's The North American Indians, undated
4/8 Annotated copy of "Myth & Legend" from Curtis's The North American Indian, undated
4/9 Annotated copy of partial chapter "The Apsaroke," from Curtis's The North American Indian, undated
4/10 Annotated copy of "Religion and Ceremonies" from Curtis's The North American Indian, 1920
4/11 Copy of chapter on Crow peyotism, author unknown , undated
4/12 Copy of The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Ethnoastronomy, 1994
Timothy McCleary
4/13 Annotated copy of "The Sun Dance of the Wind River Shoshoni and Ute", 1919
Robert Lowie
4/14 Annotated copy of Social Life of the Crow Indians, 1912
Robert Lowie
4/15 Annotated copy of Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians, 1918
Robert Lowie
4/16 Copy of Societies of the Crow, Hidatsa, and Mandan Indians, 1913
Robert Lowie
4/17 Annotated copy of "Crow Sun Dance", 1915
Robert Lowie
4/18 Annotated copy of "Tobacco Society of the Crow Indians" , 1919
4/19 Annotated copy of "The Material Culture of the Crow Indians", 1922
Robert Lowie
5/1 Annotated copy of "Crow Indian Art", 1922
Robert Lowie
5/2 Annotated copy of "Minor Ceremonies of the Crow Indians", 1924
Robert Lowie
5/3 Annotated copy of "Towards a "New" North American Legal History", 1986
Frederick Hoxie
5/4 Annotated copy of "A Culture Which Has Been Inevitably Disintegrated", 1987
Frederick Hoxie
5/5 Annotated copy of "Building a Future on the Past: Crow Indian Leadership in an Era of Division and Reunion", 1984
Frederick Hoxie
5/6 New book information sheet on Frederick Hoxie book release , 1988
5/7 Annotated book draft entitled "From Individualism to Bureaucracy: Documents on the Crow Indians, Part 1, Chapter I/IV , 1920, 1945-1974
Charles and Susanna Bradley
5/8 Annotated book draft entitled "From Individualism to Bureaucracy: Documents on the Crow Indians, Part 1, Chap. V/conclusion , 1920-1945, 1974
Charles and Susanna Bradley
5/9 Annotated book draft entitled "From Individualism to Bureaucracy: Documents on the Crow Indians, Part 2 , 1920-1945, 1974
Charles and Susanna Bradley
5/10 Annotated book draft entitled "From Individualism to Bureaucracy: Documents on the Crow Indians, Part 3 , 1920-1945, 1974
Charles and Susanna Bradley
5/11 Annotated book draft entitled "From Individualism to Bureaucracy: Documents on the Crow Indians, Part 4 , 1920-1945, 1974
Charles and Susanna Bradley
5/12 Annotated copy of "An Ethnohistorical Analysis of Crow Political Alliances", 1977
Katherine M. Weist
5/13 Copy of paper entitled "Crow Peyotism", 1963
Robert C. Kiste
5/14 Copy of "The History of Peyotism in Nevada", 1982
Omer C. Stewart
5/15 Copy of "Friend to the Ute", 1982
Omer C. Stewart
6/1 Annotated copy of "An Archeological Demonstration of Migration on the Northern Plains", 1978
William J. Byrne
6/2 Copy of "Crow Rendezvous", 1981
Colin Taylor
6/3 Copy of "Early Nineteenth Century Crow Warrior Costume", 1984
Colin Taylor
6/4 Copy of University of Montana Vision magazine with "Indian Law Clinic" article , 1990
6/5 Review of Soldiers Falling into Camp, 1992
William W. Savage, Jr.
6/6 Paper entitled "An Early Basket and Plum-Stone Game of Chance Played by Cheyenne Women", 1990
Reno Charlette
6/7 J. E. Ransom's correspondence regarding the Medicine Wheel , 1994
6/8 Small copy of 1855 map of Crow Country from unnamed source , undated
6/9 Misc. research on Crow land use and labor statistics , 1949, 1975, 1976
6/10 Copy of U.S. Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Use and Production Records , 1974
6/11 Bureau of Indian Affairs statistics on Crow , 1983, 1987, undated
6/12 Copy of Koittai Hilik, Crow newspaper , 1977
6/13 Copy of "Second Battle of the Big Horn: Indian Voting Rights Suit," in The Nation news magazine , 1986-10-25
Wilbur Wood
6/14 Copy of Supreme Court Case, Montana et. al. v. United States et. al. regarding hunting and fishing rights , 1981
6/15 Teacher's guide pamphlet titled "Crow Social Studies" , 1986
6/16 Photocopied research labeled "Absaroka - 1968" , 1968
6/17 Crow-related research and correspondence , undated
6/18 Crow research notes , undated
6/19 Crow stories, research notes , undated
6/20 Crow culture, research notes , undated
7/1 Crow soul concepts, research notes , undated
7/2 Crow medicine pipe and sweat lodge, research notes , undated
7/3 Crow interview notes and other research , 1994-1995
7/4 They Call Me Agnes research (including interview notes) , 1993-1995
7/5 Notes from interview with Helen (Pease) Wolf for They Call Me Agnes, 1980
7/6 One card titled "Crow - Orphans and the Sacred - Old Woman's Grandchild" , undated
7/7 Notes on Crow marriage, one interview note , 1939-08-12, undated
7/8 Notes on Crow "Sex-Typing," interview notes , 1939, 1941, undated
7/9 Notes on Crow virtue , undated
7/10 Notes on Crow courtship, interview notes , 1939, undated
7/11 Notes on Crow menstruation, interview notes , 1939, undated
7/12 Note on Crow "Incense - Purification" , undated
7/13 Notes on Crow pregnancy and childbirth, interview notes , 1939, undated
7/14 Notes on Crow pregnancy and birth practices, interview notes , 1939, undated
7/15 Note on Crow abortion , undated
7/16 Notes on Crow childcare, interview notes , 1939, undated
7/17 Notes on Crow ear piercing, interview note , 1939, undated
7/18 Notes on Crow child growth ideas, interview note , 1939, undated
7/19 Notes on Crow weaning, interview notes , 1939, undated
7/20 Notes on Crow childhood training, interview notes , 1939, undated
7/21 Notes on Crow childhood play, interview notes , 1939, undated
7/22 Notes on Crow teaching practices , undated
7/23 Notes on Crow names and naming practices, interview notes , 1939, undated
7/24 Notes on Crow medical practices, interview note , 1939, undated
7/25 Note on Crow "curing" or healing practices , undated
7/26 Notes on Crow perspectives toward diseases, sexual and other, interview note , 1939, and other undated
8/1 Notes on Crow warfare, interview notes , 1939, undated
8/2 Notes on Crow treatment of enemies , undated
8/3 Notes on Crow captives , undated
8/4 Notes on Crow and other tribes' war lodges and camp structures, interviews , 1941 and other undated
8/5 Notes on Crow warrior image and character , undated
8/6 Note on Crow viewpoint toward reputation and special skills , undated
8/7 Notes on Crow war party leadership , undated
8/8 Notes on reception of returning Crow war party , undated
8/9 Notes on Crow coup , undated
8/10 Notes on Crow "names - honor," interview , 1939, and other undated
8/11 Notes on Crow "healing - military" , undated
8/12 Notes on Crow men's fraternities , undated
8/13 Notes on Crow adults , undated
8/14 Note on Crow youth , undated
8/15 Notes on Crow religion , undated
8/16 Notes on Crow creation myth , undated
8/17 Notes on Crow deities or spirits , undated
8/18 Notes on Crow "Little people or dwarfs" , 1969-08-02
8/19 Notes on Crow medicines, interview , 1939, undated
8/20 Note on rock medicine , undated
8/21 Notes on Crow fasting , undated
8/22 Notes on Crow dreams and spirit encounters, interview , 1939-08-12, undated
8/23 Interview with F. Lefthand on "No-Fire Beings" , 1988-10-17
8/24 Notes on Crow medicine men, interviews , 1939, undated
8/25 Notes on Crow church, interviews , 1939, 1940, undated
8/26 Notes on Crow sacred tobacco , undated
8/27 Notes on ritual diffusion of tobacco , undated
8/28 Notes on Crow "tobacco, adoption - worship" , undated
8/29 Notes on Crow Sun Dance , undated
8/30 Notes from early manuscripts of Yellowtail, Crow Medicine Man and Sun Dance Chief: an autobiography, respectively, final version published and notes approx. 1984 , 1991
edited by Michael Oren Fitzgerald
9/1 Telephone interview with Tom Yellowtail covering adoption, tobacco, Shoshoni Dance, and money tree , 1990-06-17
9/2 Thank you note from Michael Fitzgerald , undated
9/3 Magazine article about Thomas Yellowtail , 1993
9/4 Thomas Yellowtail funeral program and obituary , 1993-11-20, 1993-12-06
9/5 Notes labeled "informant accounts" , 1984
9/6 Notes on Crow "paint" , undated
9/7 Notes on Crow "respect," interview , 1980
9/8 Notes on Crow "give-away," interview , 1941, 1980
9/9 Interview with A.N. Thomas , 1941-10-21
9/10 Notes on Crow use of and attitudes toward peyote, interview , 1941-05-27, and other undated
9/11 Notes on Crow smoke - prayer, interviews , 1939 and 1980, and other undated
9/12 Notes on Crow conflict and fighting, interview , 1939, and other undated
9/13 Notes on Crow insult , undated
9/14 Notes on Crow attitudes toward theft, interview , 1939, and other undated
9/15 Note on Crow perspective of good and bad luck , undated
9/16 Interview note regarding existence of Crow writing , undated
9/17 Note from interview with Ball on Batsirupe , 1939-08-11
9/18 Notes on Crow council district, interviews , 1939
9/19 Notes on modern Crow politics, interviews 1980 & 1987, other undated
9/20 Notes on telephone interview with Frank Voget Lefthand regarding political changes , 1994-01-04
9/21 General notes , undated
9/22 Notes generally titled "scattered data on sundance," some interviews , undated
9/23 Interview notes from reminiscences of "Ball" , 1939-08-08 - 1939-08-11
9/24 News clipping about Sun Dance news rights , 1987
9/25 Pencil drawing of Sun Dance staff , undated
9/26 Typed notes on Sun Dance, participants and dates , undated
9/27 Interview letter with response from Pete Lefthand on marriage, fasting, medicine doll, and Sun Dance , 1947-04-08
9/28 Notes on Crow, legendary events and history , undated
9/29 Notes on Hidatsa, cultural background for Crow , undated
9/30 Notes on Crow-Hidatsa Relations , undated
9/31 Notes comparing Mountain Crow and River Crow , undated
9/32 Notes on treaties , undated
9/33 Notes on trade , undated
9/34 Notes on pre-reservation , undated
9/35 Notes on reservation life, interview , 1984, and other undated
9/36 Note on agent regulation of Crow social style , undated
9/37 Notes on inter-tribal relations and view of other tribes , undated
9/38 Various appellations applied to the Crows , undated
10/1 Notes on Joseph Medicine-Crow, interview , 1987-06-23, undated
10/2 Notes on gestures and sign language , undated
10/3 Notes from readings on character traits assigned to Crows , undated
10/4 Notes on Crow perspective of territory , undated
10/5 Notes on Crow clans, interview , 1988-09-01, undated
10/6 Notes on father's clan , undated
10/7 Notes on relationships between clans , undated
10/8 Crow dance societies, interview , 1984, 1987, 1988
10/9 Notes on adoption , undated
10/10 Notes on kinship behavior , undated
10/11 Notes on kinship terminology , undated
10/12 Notes on joking relationship , undated
10/13 Notes on local divisions, bands , undated
10/14 Notes on chiefs and political organization , undated
10/15 Notes on camp layout and organization , undated
10/16 Notes on camp circle , undated
10/17 Notes on conflict resolution , undated
10/18 Notes on police camp , undated
10/19 Notes on teepees , undated
10/20 Notes on annual calendar months , undated
10/21 Notes on ethnobotany , undated
10/22 Notes on food collection (women) , undated
10/23 Notes on hunting , undated
10/24 Notes on transportation , undated
10/25 Notes on horses , undated
10/26 Notes on horse equipment, saddle , undated
10/27 Notes on dogs , undated
10/28 Notes on food , undated
10/29 Notes on maternal culture and technology , undated
10/30 Notes on kitchen and eating , undated
10/31 Notes on bow and arrow , undated
10/32 Notes on food preparation , undated
10/33 Notes on eating and etiquette , undated
10/34 Notes on drinking and smoking , undated
10/35 Notes on tanning and hides , undated
10/36 Notes on bags or containers , undated
10/37 Notes on admired types and behavior , undated
10/38 Notes on body customs and care , undated
11/1 Notes on hair , undated
11/2 Notes on cleanliness , undated
11/3 Notes on dress , undated
11/4 Notes on age categories and biological maturation, interviews , 1939, undated
11/5 Notes on burial , undated
11/6 Notes on mourning , undated
11/7 Notes on dances, reading and interview , undated
11/8 Notes on modern dance , undated
11/9 Interview notes regarding ghost signals and death , 1988
11/10 Interview notes regarding medicine necklaces and names for babies , 1987-01-18
11/11 Note on Glad Song, interview , 1988-10-17
11/12 Notes on praise songs, interview , 1988-10-17, undated
11/13 Notes on Crow Indian Fair, interview , 1988-10-17, undated
11/14 Notes on games - competition , undated
11/15 Notes on gambling , undated
11/16 Notes on home life , undated
11/17 Notes on sleeping arrangements , undated
11/18 Note on acculturation - change , undated
11/19 Notes on acculturation , undated
11/20 List of early schools for Native Americans and other note on education , undated
11/21 Notes from readings on coyote , undated
11/22 Interviews on "Old Man Coyote" , undated
11/23 Interview with F. Lefthand on the sun, woodpecker, and Washington's Birthday , undated
11/24 Interviews with Marshall Lefthand on prayer, mystical power, and blessing , 1989
11/25 Interview with Marshall Lefthand regarding sexual abuse conference , 1989
11/26 Interview with Laverne Williamson, 4th of Pow Wow , 1989-06-29
11/27 Interview with F. Lefthand on descent of Crow from sun , 1989-07-16
11/28 Notes from telephone conversation with Barbara Lefthand, mention of fashion , 1990
11/29 Various interview notes with Frank Voget Lefthand on Tobacco Dance, Sun Dance, and Custer re-enactment , 1984, 1991-04-07
11/30 Notes on conversation with Ferole Pease , 1996-02-08
11/31 Interview notes on "stylish tendencies of Crow" , 1996-02-08
11/32 Crow "notes to be transcribed to index cards" , undated
11/33 Letter from Ferole & Bill , 1987
11/34 Notes from interview with Frederick , May, 1993
11/35 Letter from T. Larson Medicine Horse , undated
11/36 Interview with Feral Mae (Hogan) Pease, Crow Agency, Montana, undated
11/37 Notes regarding Crow-Cheyenne conflict over Crow Agency Hospital , undated
11/38 Interview with Bill Russell, Lodge Grass and Pryor, Montana , 1956, undated
11/39 Interview with Bill Pease regarding Bill Russell , undated
11/40 Note about Ben Jefferson, Lodge Grass, Montana , undated
11/41 Interviews, notes, and records from Flathead Reservation, Montana , 1950, 1956, undated
11/42 Interview with Sam and Flora Hathaway, Pryor, Montana , 1956-06-13
11/43 Interview with Poesy Edward Whiteman, Pryor, Montana , 1956
11/44 Interview with Mrs. E.A.K. Cashen, Pryor, Montana , undated
11/45 Interview with Oliver Verme, Crow Agency, Montana , 1956
11/46 Interview with Josephine Russell, Lodge Grass, Montana 1956
11/47 Copy of Kronmiller letter discussing Crow Tribe Resolutions , 1956-06-06
11/48 One page unsigned resolution to alter Crow land lease terms , undated
11/49 Copy of "Constitution and By-Laws of the Crow Tribal Council" , undated
11/50 Photocopies and notes from folder labeled "Mike Cowdrey" , undated
11/51 Kay Voget Crow notes , 1968-06-08
11/52 Letter from Agnes Deernose and Ataloa Hogan Harris , undated
11/53 Handwritten list of literature supplied by D. Deernose , undated
12/1 Crow giveaway feast given by George Goes-Ahead-Pretty of Pryor , 1946-04-28
12/2 Arrow throwing interview, Crow , 1946-04-26
12/3 Jack Covers-Up interview on sun dance, Crow , 1946-04-25
12/4 Jim Blaine interview on sun dance, Crow , 1946-04-24
12/5 Medicine Crow interview on sun dance , 1946-04-23
12/6 Interview with Plays on sun dance, Crow , 1946-04-22
12/7 Interviews on sun dance, Crow , 1946 and undated
12/8 Interviews on sun dance, much shorthand, Crow , 1940s
12/9 Notes for non-sun dance member questionnaire , undated
12/10 Guide for sun dance member questionnaire , undated
12/11 Sun dance interviews with Lynn St. Clair, Tom Wesaw, Tom Compton, and John Truhujo, Shoshoni , August 1948
12/12 Interview with Antonius La Jennesse, Shoshoni , August 1948
12/13 Interviews with Mrs. Mike T. Montour, Caughnawaga Iroquois , 1949, 1950
12/14 Signature of Pablo Juan Truhujo , undated
12/15 List of Crow Agency sun dancers , 1944
12/16 Compiled lists and tables of sun dance and related data , undated
12/17 Compiled lists of church membership status , undated
12/18 Political questionnaire , undated
12/19 Interviews with members and other information on Shoshoni-Arapahoe Council , 1948
12/20 Shoshoni-Arapahoe Joint Council Meetings , 1947, 1948
12/21 Meetings of the Business Councils of the Arapahoe and Shoshoni , 1940-12-06, 1941-12-11

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Series III:  Field research notebooks , 1949-1993
1.0 linear feet

This series includes Voget's handwritten field research notebooks on the Shoshoni, the Iroquois, the Blackfeet, and the Crow. Many parts of the notebooks are written in shorthand. The Iroquois and Blackfeet notebooks were transcribed in 2003 and 2004.

The series is arranged in chronological order.
Container(s)
Description
Box/Folder
12/22 Field research notebook, Shoshoni, some shorthand , 1948
12/23 Field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada, much shorthand , 1949-08-16, undated
28/1 Transcription of field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada
13/1 Field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada, much shorthand , 1949-08-16, undated
28/2 Transcription of field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada
13/2 Field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada, much shorthand , 1949
28/3 Transcription of field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada
13/3 Field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada, much shorthand , 1950
28/4 Transcription of field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada
13/4 Field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada, much shorthand , 1950
28/5 Transcription of field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada
13/5 Field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada, some shorthand , 1950
28/6 Transcription of field research notebook, Iroquois at Caughnawauga, Ontario, Canada
13/6 Field research notebook, Blackfeet, mostly shorthand , 1956
2/7 Transcription of field research notebook, Blackfeet
13/7 Field interview notebook, Crow , 1939-07-08 - 1939-07-20
13/8 Field interview notebook, Crow , 1939-08-12 - 1939-08-17
13/9 Field research notebook, Crow, no shorthand , 1986
13/10 Field research notebook, Crow, no shorthand , 1987
14/1 Field research notebook supplement, Crow, no shorthand , 1987
14/2 Field research notebook, Crow , 1993

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Series IV:  Crow language research , undated
1.0 linear feet

This series includes a small amount of language research notes from secondary sources, but the bulk of the series consists of handwritten and typed cards with a word or phrase in English and the corresponding Crow word or phrase with pronunciation markings.

This series is arranged alphabetically by the English word or the significant word in a phrase.
Container(s)
Description
Box/Folder
14/3 Crow language research notes , undated
14/4 Language cards with multiple words and phrases , undated
14/5 "A" , undated
14/6 "B" , undated
14/7 "C" , undated
14/8 "D" , undated
14/9 "E" , undated
14/10 "F" , undated
15/1 "G" , undated
15/2 "H" , undated
15/3 "I" , undated
15/4 "J" , undated
15/5 "K" , undated
15/6 "L" , undated
15/7 "M" , undated
15/8 "N" , undated
15/9 "O" , undated
15/10 "P" , undated
15/11 "Q" , undated
15/12 "R" , undated
16/1 "S" , undated
16/2 "T" , undated
16/3 "T" , undated
16/4 "U" , undated
16/5 "W" , undated
16/6 "Y" , undated

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Series V:  Writings , 1935-1996
2.3 linear feet

This series includes some of Voget's undergraduate papers, working drafts of articles and book chapters, and copies of published articles. The drafts preceded published works and probably a planned history of the Crow Indians that was not published at the time of processing.

This series is arranged in rough chronological order within the categories of term papers, drafts, and published works.
Container(s)
Description
Box/Folder
16/7 Three copies of term paper for History of Social Thought class , 1935
16/8 Copy of term paper for History of Social Thought class , 1935
17/1 Paper for Main Currents of European Thought class , 1936
17/2 Analysis of social theorists for Contemporary Social Theories class , 1937
17/3 Notes for lecture or article on perspective and focus in anthropology , undated
27/1 Dissertation, The Diffusion of the Wind River Shoshone Sundance to the Crow Indians of Montana, 1948
17/4 Broad Crow article outline , undated
17/5 Drafts of article or chapter on Crow Arrow Throw , 1946
17/6 Retyped or revised draft of "Social Life of the Crow Arrow Throwing Game" , undated
17/7 Draft of article, "William Big Day: A Crow Innovator" , 1946
17/8 Draft of article "Anthropological Theory and Iroquois Ethnology , undated
17/9 Draft of article or lecture entitled "The Status of American Indian Women: A Comparison of Crow and Iroquois Women" , undated
17/10 Draft of Voget introduction to later printing of Blankets and Moccasins, originally published in 1933 , undated
17/11 Notes for lecture or article on Crow Indians and Sun Dance , undated
17/12 Draft of table of contents, notes, and bibliography for The Shoshoni-Crow Sun Dance, undated
17/13 Early chapter outline for The Shoshoni-Crow Sun Dance, undated
17/14 Notes and partial draft of Chapter 6 of The Shoshoni-Crow Sun Dance, undated
17/15 Some chapter drafts for The Shoshoni-Crow Sun Dance, undated
17/16 Index for The Shoshoni-Crow Sun Dance, A-N , undated
17/17 Index for The Shoshon-Crow Sun Dance, O-Z , undated
18/1 Organizing notes for They Call Me Agnes, undated
18/2 Handwritten article or chapter, "Crow Mythology and the Creator" , undated
18/3 Letter from Enciclopedia Italiana, 1986
18/4 Draft of "Anthropology and Ethnology" for Enciclopedia Italiana, 1988
18/5 Article on Crow for publication in Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 13 , 1987
18/6 Notebook, possible organizing notes for manuscript , undated
18/7 Drafts of chapters on Crow origins for history of Crow manuscript , 1991
18/8 Draft of chapters of Crow worldview for history of Crow manuscript , undated
18/9 Drafts of chapter on Crow religion for manuscript on history of Crow , undated
18/10 Drafts of chapter, "Religion in Crow Indian Culture and Culture History" , 1989, 1990, 1994, undated
19/1 Rough draft of chapter, "Crow Culture History" , undated
19/2 Draft of chapter, "Crow Origins" , 1991 and undated
19/3 Draft of chapter, "Sacred Design of Hidatsa Society and Culture" , 1991 and undated
19/4 "Work copies" of chapter, "Crow Culture" , undated
19/5 Draft of chapter, "Historic Crow Culture" , undated
19/6 Draft of chapter, "Reservation Culture" , undated
19/7 Drafts and correspondence in regard to Voget's introduction to reprint of Old Man Coyote by Frank Bird Linderman , 1995
19/8 Abstract, "Were the Crow Indians Conservationists?" , undated
19/9 Article or chapter on Arapahoe culture , undated
19/10 Bibliography for unnamed manuscript , undated
19/11 One page note on paper about Crow ceremonial rights , undated
20/1 Bibliography of published articles by Voget , undated
20/2 Article titled "The Folk Society - An Anthropological Application" , 1954
20/3 Article titled "Forgotten Forerunners of Anthropology" , undated
20/4 Article titled "Anthropology and Sociology" , undated
20/5 Article titled "Man and Culture: An Essay in Changing Anthropological Interpretations" , 1960
20/6 Article titled "American Indian Reformations and Acculturation" , 1960
20/7 Article titled "Reform und Akkomadation: Unter Amerikanischen Indianern" , undated
20/8 Article titled "Comment on Robert K. Thomas' "The Redbird Smith Movement" , 1961
20/9 Article, "Progress, Science, History, and Evolution in 18th and 19th Century Anthropology" , 1967
20/10 Article titled "Anthropology in the Age of Enlightenment: Progress and Utopian Functionalism" , 1968
20/11 Article titled, "A Six Nations' Diary, 1891-1894" , 1969
20/12 Article titled, "The History of Cultural Anthropology" , 1974
20/13 Article titled "Reflections on Acculturation Processes and Stages: A Reply to Deward E. Walker, Jr." , 1976
20/14 Academic Encyclopedia articles , undated
20/15 Entry on Franz Boas in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, undated
20/16 Article titled "Cultural Change and the American Indian" , undated
20/17 Article titled "Sacred Numerology and Management of the Universe by the Crow Indians" , undated
20/18 Article titled "Warfare and the Integration of Crow Indian Culture" , undated
20/19 Article titled "The Reservation Community as an Interactional System" , undated
20/20 Review titled "Ethnoscience Versus the Survey: Steps for Gathering Data" , 1980
20/21 Article titled "The Crow Indian Give-Away" , 1987
20/22 Article titled "Religion in Crow Indian Culture and Culture History" , 1996
20/23 "Before the Indian Claims Commission: Docket Nos. 106 and 107: Osage Research Report," (missing title page, page 1, and bibliographic reference pages 357-371) , 1946, 1966

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Series VI:  Photos , 1939-1989
2.5 linear feet

This series includes Voget's photos, slides, and some negatives taken throughout his research. The bulk of the photos chronicle Crow activities such as the sun dance and arrow throw, feasts, and giveaways. A smaller number of photos are of specific individuals significant to Crow history and/or Voget's research. Another small group of photos pertain to Native American artifacts, the Shoshoni sun dance, and to Mohawk and other Six Nations groups. Most of the photos are very usable with the exception of photos 25/75 through 25/89, which are out of focus. Original photo captions and photo groupings were maintained where they existed. Otherwise, the photos in this series are arranged in rough thematic and chronological order. The slides are grouped at the end of this series.

Container(s)
Description
Box/Folder
20/24 Photocopies of Crow photos from various publications , undated
20/25 Negatives of pictures and maps from various publications , undated
20/26 Color copies and photocopies of photos used in They Call Me Agnes, undated
20/27 Negative strips relevant to They Call Me Agnes, 1980s
20/28 Negative strips from photos used in They Call Me Agnes, 1980s
20/29 Negative strips relevant to They Call Me Agnes , undated
20/30 318(VI)1: Joy, daughter of Robert Yellowtail and Agnes , undated
20/31 318(VI)2: Danny and dance troupe , undated
20/32 318(VI)3: Agnes used in They Call Me Agnes, undated
20/33 318(VI)4: Yellowtail family , around 1930
20/34 318(VI)5: Agnes's father, Hawk with Yellow Tail , undated
20/35 318(VI)6: Amy, Agnes's sister , undated
20/36 318(VI)7: Agnes and her Baptist mission schoolmates , ca. 1920
20/37 318(VI)8: Agnes's mother at age 100 , undated
20/38 318(VI)9: Two rows of Crow women in traditional dress , undated
20/39 318(VI)10: Crow boarding school, Crow Agency, Montana , 1894
20/40 318(VI)11: Crow Shoshoni Sun Dance, Pryor, Montana , 1941
20/41 318(VI)12: Tripod reminder of Sun Dance, Pryor, Montana, June , 1941
20/42 318(VI)13: John Truhujo praying for dancers to give them strength, Pryor, Montana , 1941
20/43 318(VI)14: Tripod frame with buffalo head, Pryor, Montana , 1941
20/44 318(VI)15: Tripod frame with buffalo head, Pryor, Montana , 1941
21/1 318(VI)16: "Baby cave" at Pryor, Montana , undated
21/2 318(VI)17: Henry Big Day with daughter, Pryor, Montana , 1939
21/3 318(VI)18: Medicine bundle belonging to Henry Big Day's father-in-law hung on west side of house, Pryor, Montana , undated
21/4 318(VI)19: Picnic in the Big Horn Mountains, WY , 1940-07-04
21/5 318(VI)20: Portion of the Medicine Wheel, Big Horn Mountains, WY , 1940-07-04
21/6 318(VI)21: Main business section of Pryor, Montana , 1939
21/7 318(VI)22: Main business section of Pryor, Montana , 1939
21/8 318(VI)23: Wolf Mountains near Lodge Grass, Montana , 1941
21/9 318(VI)24: Medicine Wheel, Big Horn Mtns, WY , 1940-07-04
21/10 318(VI)25: Medicine Wheel, Big Horn Mtns, WY , 1940-07-04
21/11 318(VI)26: Medicine Wheel, Big Horn Mtns, WY , 1940-07-04
21/12 318(VI)27: Unidentified building , 1940
21/13 318(VI)28: Cemetery , undated
21/14 318(VI)29: Scenic view , undated
21/15 318(VI)30: Woman holding baby at Crow Fair , 1940
21/16 318(VI)31: Man holding baby at Crow Fair , 1940
21/17 318(VI)32: Crow camp scene , 1940
21/18 318(VI)33: Chief Holds-the-Enemy wearing Hudson Bay capote , 1939
21/19 318(VI)34: Chief Holds-the-Enemy, Prior, Montana , 1939
21/20 318(VI)35: Camp views of annual Crow Fair , 1939
21/21 318(VI)36: Camp views of annual Crow Fair , 1939
21/22 318(VI)37: Folka Lefthand combing her hair, Crow Fair , 1939
21/23 318(VI)38: Camp view at annual Crow Fair , 1939
21/24 318(VI)39: Women with children, Crow Fair , 1940
21/25 318(VI)40: Women with children, Crow Fair , 1940
21/26 318(VI)41: Eating at the annual Crow Fair , 1939
21/27 318(VI)42: Eating at the annual Crow Fair , 1939
21/28 318(VI)43: Ruth Backbone and Elaine Mikalson at Crow Fair , 1940
21/29 318(VI)44: Two men observing fair , 1940
21/30 318(VI)45: Two men and child on bench , 1940
21/31 318(VI)46: Man in traditional dress , 1940
21/32 318(VI)47: Pete Lefthand at Crow Fair , 1939
21/33 318(VI)48: Camp scene , undated
21/34 318(VI)49: Camp scene , undated
21/35 318(VI)50: Unidentified family eating , undated
21/36 318(VI)51: Man and children in camp area at Crow Fair , 1939
21/37 318(VI)52: Teepee , 1940
21/38 318(VI)53: Three men on horseback facing camera , ca. 1940
21/39 318(VI)54: Henry Big Day and horse at Crow Fair , undated
21/40 318(VI)55: Henry Big Day and horse at Crow Fair , undated
21/41 318(VI)56: Henry Big Day and horse at Crow Fair , undated
21/42 318(VI)57: Henry Big Day and horse at Crow Fair , undated
21/43 318(VI)58: Henry Big Day at Crow Fair , undated
21/44 318(VI)59: Henry Big Day and unknown man on horseback at Crow Fair , undated
21/45 318(VI)60: Horse with fancy bridle and breast plate for Crow Fair parade , 1940
21/46 318(VI)61: Assembling for the Crow Fair parade in NE section of camp, Crow Agency, Montana , 1939
21/47 318(VI)62: Assembling for the Crow Fair parade , 1939
21/48 318(VI)63: Crow Fair parade , 1940
21/49 318(VI)64: Crow Fair parade , 1940
21/50 318(VI)65: Gathering for costume judging at Crow Fair , 1939
21/51 318(VI)66: Line of men on horseback in traditional clothing , undated
21/52 318(VI)67: Crow Fair parade , undated
21/53 318(VI)68: Crow Fair parade , undated
21/54 318(VI)69: Crow Fair parade passing on , 1939
21/55 318(VI)70: Crow Fair parade passing on , 1939
21/56 318(VI)71: Two men on horseback with American flag, teepees in background , undated
21/57 318(VI)72: Men on horseback carrying flag , undated
21/58 318(VI)73: Crow Fair, Crow Agency, Montana , 1939
21/59 318(VI)74: Parade at Crow Fair , 1940
21/60 318(VI)75: Raising teepee at Crow Fair , 1940
21/61 318(VI)76: Henry Big Day at Crow Fair , undated
21/62 318(VI)77: Herb Reed at Crow Fair , 1940
21/63 318(VI)78: Reed kids and Thelma in camp at Crow Fair , 1940
21/64 318(VI)79: Three children at Crow Fair , ca. 1940
21/65 318(VI)80: Small girl in traditional Crow dress, Crow Fair , ca. 1940
21/66 318(VI)81: Suzy Yellowtail in bone elk tooth dress , undated
21/67 318(VI)82: Henry Big Day in traditional clothing with pinto horse , 1940
21/68 318(VI)83: Henry Big Day on pinto , 1940
21/69 318(VI)84: Camp scene with meat drying on pole at Crow Fair, Crow Agency, Montana , 1939
21/70 318(VI)85: Camp scene with woman and child in foreground , undated
21/71 318(VI)86: Crow teepees with ramada-type shelter at Crow Fair, Crow Agency, Montana , 1939
21/72 318(VI)87: Crow teepees with ramada-type shelter at Crow Fair, Crow Agency, Montana , 1939
21/73 318(VI)88: Crow teepees, Crow Agency, Montana , 1940
21/74 318(VI)89: Teepee , undated
21/75 318(VI)90: Teepee , undated
21/76 318(VI)91: Teepee , undated
21/77 318(VI)92: Crow teepees , undated
21/78 318(VI)93: Teepee & cars, Crow Fair , 1940
21/79 318(VI)94: Child's play teepee, Crow , 1939
21/80 318(VI)95: Old Cree mediwoman, Yellow-woman (Mrs. Ball), Ball, and Joe Turns Back, Pryor, Montana , 1939
21/81 318(VI)96: Crow women at Crow Fair , 1939
21/82 318(VI)97: Women and children under canopy, Crow Fair , 1940
21/83 318(VI)98: View of Crow Fair camp , 1940
21/84 318(VI)99: View of Crow Fair camp , 1940
21/85 318(VI)100: View of Crow Fair camp , 1940
21/86 318(VI)101: View of Crow Fair camp , 1940
21/87 318(VI)102: View of Crow Fair camp , 1940
21/88 318(VI)103: View of Crow Fair camp , 1940
21/89 318(VI)104: View of Crow Fair camp , 1940
21/90 318(VI)105: Returning war party at Crow Fair , 1939
22/1 318(VI)106: Remnants of fort build by Cheyenne about five miles from Lodge Grass, Montana , undated
22/2 318(VI)107: War lodge, presumably left by Piegan , 1941
22/3 318(VI)108: War lodge, presumably left by Piegan , 1941
22/4 318(VI)109: Gathering, possibly for feast , undated
22/5 318(VI)110: Three boys at Crow Fair , 1939
22/6 318(VI)111: Looking out over North Fork of Lodge Grass Creek, Montana , 1941
22/7 318(VI)112: Teepee Pole Springs in the Big Horn Mountains , 1941
22/8 318(VI)113: Inspecting marriage gifts , 1940
22/9 318(VI)114: Hartford Whitehip's marriage, inspecting gift of groom and bride's parents and kin, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
22/10 318(VI)115: Whitehip marriage goods displayed, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
22/11 318(VI)116: Gloria Goes Ahead, Crow bride, with wedding gifts, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
22/12 318(VI)117: Gloria Goes Ahead, Crow bride, inspecting wedding gifts , 1940
22/13 318(VI)118: Crow bride and young groom (Gloria Goes Ahead and Barnard Cummins) with wedding presents , 1940
22/14 318(VI)119: Possible wedding gift display , undated
22/15 318(VI)120: View of house, barn, and corrals, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
22/16 318(VI)121: View of house, barn, and corrals, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
22/17 318(VI)122: Tobacco garden, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1941-05-30
22/18 318(VI)123: Tobacco garden 6 days after planting, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1941-05-30
22/19 318(VI)124: Woman cleaning hide with elkhorn adze, grandmother with child , 1940
22/20 318(VI)125: Woman staking hide down , 1940
22/21 18(VI)126: Woman working on tanning hide, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
22/22 318(VI)127: Woman tanning hide, Lodge Grass, Montana 1940
22/23 318(VI)128: Hide stretched between pegs for tanning , 1939
22/24 318(VI)129: Hide stretched between pegs for tanning , 1939
22/25 318(VI)130: Woman-on-top-of-the-ground demonstrates fleshing of deerhide , 1941
22/26 318(VI)131: Woman-on-top-of-the-ground softens hide by scraping , 1941
22/27 318(VI)132: Two unidentified women , undated
22/28 318(VI)133: Two people , undated
22/29 318(VI)134: Crow child in parade dress on black and white pinto , 1940
22/30 318(VI)135: Crow child in parade dress on dark-colored horse , 1940
22/31 318(VI)136: Crow feast after giveaway , 1940
22/32 318(VI)137: Dancing fraternity in background and circle of men playing hand games in foreground , 1940
22/33 318(VI)138: Playing handgame and telling stories, Crow Fair , 1940
22/34 318(VI)139: Yellow Face and Holds-the-Enemy at Crow Fair , 1940
22/35 318(VI)140: Holds-the-Enemy on horseback at crow Fair , 1959
22/36 318(VI)141: Branding on Reed farm, Arliss Whiteman , undated
22/37 318(VI)142: Branding by Yellowtail, the Crow Superintendent , undated
22/38 318(VI)143: Branding , undated
22/39 318(VI)144: Gathering poles for sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/40 318(VI)145: Gathering poles for sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/41 318(VI)146: Gathering poles for sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/42 318(VI)147: Gathering poles for sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/43 318(VI)148: Gathering poles for sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/44 318(VI)149: Gathering poles for sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/45 318(VI)150: Charlie Ten/bear talks with signs while Truhujo listens, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/46 318(VI)151: Loading poles for sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/47 318(VI)152: Truck dragging wagon with poles, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/48 318(VI)153: Slender pole draped with material, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/49 318(VI)154: Tripod in foreground, seated people in background, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/50 318(VI)155: Woodpile which lay south of the buffalo head, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/51 318(VI)156: Preparing center pole, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/52 318(VI)157: Preparation of sun dance lodge center pole, Charlie Ten/bear in immediate foreground, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/53 318(VI)158: Charlie Ten/bear gesturing, Truhujo visible, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/54 318(VI)159: Messenger eagle marking center pole location, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/55 318(VI)160: Messenger eagle resting on cottonwood foliage frame pointed to sun, marking location of center pole, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/56 318(VI)161: Messenger eagle , undated
22/57 318(VI)162: Ready to attach buffalo head to center pole, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/58 318(VI)163: Attaching buffalo head to center pole, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/59 318(VI)164: Raising center pole at Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/60 318(VI)165: Raising the center pole , undated
22/61 318(VI)166: Raising center pole for sun dance , 1940
22/62 318(VI)167: Raising center pole for sun dance , 1941
22/63 318(VI)168: Raising center pole for sun dance , 1940
22/64 318(VI)169: Stabilizing center pole for sun dance , 1941
22/65 318(VI)170: Stages in lodge construction for Crow sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/66 318(VI)171: Stages in lodge construction for Crow sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/67 318(VI)172: Constructing sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/68 318(VI)173: Center pole with buffalo head, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/69 318(VI)174: Center pole with buffalo head, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/70 318(VI)175: Center pole with buffalo head, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/71 318(VI)176: Men waiting in and by truck, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
22/72 318(VI)177: Early sun dance lodge construction, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/1 318(VI)178: Structure of sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/2 318(VI)179: Distant view of empty sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/3 318(VI)180: Distant view of occupied sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/4 318(VI)181: Very distant view of sun dance lodge, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/5 318(VI)182: Dancers sitting around tree singing sacred songs during sunrise ceremony, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/6 318(VI)183: Dancers seated around center pole , undated
23/7 318(VI)184: Dancers seated around center pole , undated
23/8 318(VI)185: Crow sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/9 318(VI)186: Crow sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/10 318(VI)187: Curing at Crow sun dance, Crow Agency , 1941
23/11 318(VI)188: Curing at sun dance , undated
23/12 318(VI)189: Crow sun dancers dancing to and from center pole, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/13 318(VI)190: Dancers dancing to and from center pole , undated
23/14 318(VI)191: Dancers dancing to and from center pole , undated
23/15 318(VI)192: Dancers near center pole , undated
23/16 318(VI)193: John Truhujo doctoring Charlie Horse at sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/17 318(VI)194: John Truhujo doctoring Charlie Horse at sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/18 318(VI)195: John Truhujo doctoring Charlie Horse at sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/19 318(VI)196: Man watches as John Truhujo doctors Charlie Horse at sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/20 318(VI)197: John Truhujo doctoring Charlie Horse at sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/21 318(VI)198: John Truhujo doctoring Charlie Horse at sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/22 318(VI)199: John Truhujo doctoring Charlie Horse at sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/23 318(VI)200: John Truhujo doctoring, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/24 318(VI)201: John Truhujo in prayerful attitude after doctoring, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/25 318(VI)202: Man and child at center pole in sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/26 318(VI)203: John Truhujo doctoring old men, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/27 318(VI)204: Old men at center pole, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/28 318(VI)205: Truhujo, woman, and other, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/29 318(VI)206: Truhujo doctoring old men, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/30 318(VI)207: Truhujo doctoring child at Crow sun dance , 1941
23/31 318(VI)208: People moving toward sun dance lodge , undated
23/32 318(VI)209: Photo focused on male clothing at sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/33 318(VI)210: Two men at center pole in sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/34 318(VI)211: Crowd at Crow sun dance , 1941
23/35 318(VI)212: Tom Compton, Wind River Shoshoni, strengthening dancers, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/36 318(VI)213: Tom Compton, Wind River Shoshoni, strengthening dancers, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/37 318(VI)214: Crow sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/38 318(VI)215: Crow sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/39 318(VI)216: Crow sun dancers, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/40 318(VI)217: Crow sun dancers, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/41 318(VI)218: Crow sun dancers, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/42 318(VI)219: Crow sun dancers, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/43 318(VI)220: Crow sun dance spectators, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/44 318(VI)221: Dancers and others gathered before center pole , undated
23/45 318(VI)222: Pete Lefthand on hill overlooking Crow encampment near Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
23/46 318(VI)223: Pete Lefthand standing with Campbell Big Hail, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/47 318(VI)224: Pete Lefthand standing with Campbell Big Hail, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/48 318(VI)225: John Truhujo conferring with Crow coup strikers at sun dance, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/49 318(VI)226: Charlie Tenbear armed with coupstick for striking coup on the sun dance timbers, Crow Agency, Montana , 1941
23/50 318(VI)227: Sun dance sweat lodge , undated
23/51 318(VI)228: Resting after sunrise greeting, Shoshoni drum in foreground, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/52 318(VI)229: Blurred photo of sun dance, possibly sunrise ceremony , undated
23/53 318(VI)230: Jack Covers-up , undated
23/54 318(VI)231: Jack Covers-up and Little Nest at sun dance, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/55 318(VI)232: Jack Covers-up (Lodge Grass) and Little Nest (Wyola) speaking with sign language (Little Nest is deaf) at sun dance, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/56 318(VI)233: Jack Covers-up and Little Nest speaking sign language, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/57 318(VI)234: Little Nest posing, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/58 318(VI)235: Little Nest smoking to the sun before breakfast, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/59 318(VI)236: Little Nest smoking to the sun before breakfast, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/60 318(VI)237: Tobacco Lodge, Little Nest (L) smoking pipe , undated
23/61 318(VI)238: Tobacco lodge , 1939
23/62 318(VI)239: Tobacco lodge , 1939
23/63 318(VI)240: Tobacco lodge , 1939
23/64 318(VI)241: Tobacco lodge , 1939
23/65 318(VI)242: Tobacco lodge , 1939
23/66 318(VI)243: Hand game , 1940
23/67 318(VI)244: Hand game, White Arm in center turned right, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
23/68 318(VI)245: Hand game, White Arm in center facing forward, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
23/69 318(VI)246: Hand game, White Arm in center, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
23/70 318(VI)247: White Arm, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
23/71 318(VI)248: Hand game, White Arm in center, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
23/72 318(VI)249: Hand game, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1940
23/73 318(VI)250: Hand game, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/74 318(VI)251: Hand game, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/75 318(VI)252: Hand game participants , undated
23/76 318(VI)253: Crow dancers, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/77 318(VI)254: Crow fair, dancing fraternity and hand games, Pryor , 1941
23/78 318(VI)255: Line of Crow dancers and small circle of men playing hand game, Pryor, Montana , 1941
23/79 318(VI)256: Dancers , undated
23/80 318(VI)257: Honor dance and hand game, Pryor, Montana , 1941
24/1 318(VI)258: Dancers and hand game participants , undated
24/2 318(VI)259: Eddie Roundface signals a right hand call in a hand game, Frank Hawk leaning over, Pryor, Montana , 1941
24/3 318(VI)260: Pete Lefthand with his son, Anthony , 1941
24/4 318(VI)261: Unknown man , undated
24/5 318(VI)262: Three unknown men mostly in traditional dress , undated
24/6 318(VI)263: Sheridan, Wyoming rodeo parade , 1941
24/7 318(VI)264: Sheridan, Wyoming rodeo parade , 1941
24/8 318(VI)265: Cheyenne Indians in Sheridan, Wyoming rodeo parade , 1941
24/9 318(VI)266: Sheridan, Wyoming rodeo parade , 1941
24/10 318(VI)267: Sheridan, Wyoming rodeo parade , 1941
24/11 318(VI)268: Sheridan, Wyoming rodeo parade , 1941
24/12 318(VI)269: Parade float , undated
24/13 318(VI)270: American Indian Days, Sheridan, Wyoming or Billings, Montana , 1940
24/14 318(VI)271: Voget's naming, St. Xavier, Montana , undated
24/15 318(VI)272: Katie Bear Below , undated
24/16 318(VI)273: Crow feast , ca. 1939-1940
24/17 318(VI)274: Crow feast , ca. 1939-1940
24/18 318(VI)275: Group enjoying outdoor meal, Lodge Grass, Montana , ca. 1939-1940
24/19 318(VI)276: Cars and people, Lodge Grass, Montana , ca. 1939-1940
24/20 318(VI)277: Pete Lefthand giving away a horse and Jack Covers Up announcing , ca. 1939-1940
24/21 318(VI)278: Women sorting goods for giveaway, Lodge Grass, Montana , ca. 1940
24/22 318(VI)279: War lodge reconstructed , ca. 1939-1940
24/23 318(VI)280: Post office, Pryor, Montana , ca. 1940s
24/24 318(VI)281: Hand game, Pryor, Montana , ca. 1939-1940
24/25 318(VI)282: Hand game, Pryor, Montana , ca. 1939-1940
24/26 318(VI)283: Hand game, Pryor, Montana , ca. 1939-1940
24/27 318(VI)284: Hand game, Pryor, Montana , ca. 1939-1940
24/28 318(VI)285: Crowd watching hand game , 1939
24/29 318(VI)286: Summer shelter put up at Pryor, Montana , 1939
24/30 318(VI)287: Crow sun dance , 1948
24/31 318(VI)288: Joe Hill curing , 1948
24/32 318(VI)289: Joe Hill curing two women , 1948
24/33 318(VI)290: At Crow sun dance , 1948
24/34 318(VI)291: Shoshoni in street clothes at center pole, Washikie, WY , 1948
24/35 318(VI)292: Early stage in lodge construction, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/36 318(VI)293: Middle stage of lodge construction, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/37 318(VI)294: Constructing Shoshoni sun dance area, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/38 318(VI)295: Shoshoni sun dance lodge, seated people, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/39 318(VI)296: View of sun dance lodge with drum in foreground and dancers in background, Washikie, WY , 1948
24/40 318(VI)297: Shoshoni drum, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/41 318(VI)298: Drum in sun dance lodge , undated
24/42 318(VI)299: Shoshoni dancers gathered around fire after sunrise greeting, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/43 318(VI)300: Shoshoni dancers gathered around consecrated fire, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/44 318(VI)301: Shoshoni dancers seated with blankets over shoulders, gathered around consecrated fire, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/45 318(VI)302: Shoshoni dancers pray to sun at sunrise, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/46 318(VI)303: Shoshoni sun dance, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/47 318(VI)304: Shoshoni dancer at center pole, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/48 318(VI)305: Shoshoni dancer with woman and children at center pole, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/49 318(VI)306: Shoshoni dancers and others at center pole, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/50 318(VI)307: Shoshoni dancers with woman and other dancers at center pole, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/51 318(VI)308: Shoshoni leaving sun dance area, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/52 318(VI)309: Shoshoni dancers gathered, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/53 318(VI)310: Distant view of Shoshoni sun dance lodge, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/54 318(VI)311: Shoshoni dancers, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/55 318(VI)312: Unidentified man, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/56 318(VI)313: Lynn St. Clair, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/57 318(VI)314: Tony Lajeunesse, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/58 318(VI)315: Two unidentified men, Washakie, WY , 1948
24/59 318(VI)316: Al Childs, Crow , undated
24/60 318(VI)317: Paternal clansmen praying for dancers at end of sun dance, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1975
24/61 318(VI)318: James Bear Below (r) and Ira Lefthand (l) at snack bar at sun dance, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1975
24/62 318(VI)319: William Yellow Robe, Assiniboine, first recipient of Peter Lefthand Award , 1986
24/63 318(VI)320: Feasting at sun dance giveaway, Melvin Lefthand, wife Gladys, and daughter , 1987
24/64 318(VI)321: Sun dance giveaway , 1987
24/65 318(VI)322: Hugh Little Owl, Ira and Melvin Left Hand, Clifford Whiteman, and Calvin Jefferson at giveaway following sun dance near Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/66 318(VI)323: Robert Yellowtail (L) and Tom Yellowtail (R) at sun dance giveaway , 1987
24/67 318(VI)324: Heather and Fredrica Lefthand , 1987
24/68 318(VI)325: Heather, Frederick, and Fredrica Lefthand , 1987
24/69 318(VI)326: Fredrica at age 16, junior in high school , undated
24/70 318(VI)327: Fredrica Lefthand being crowned 1991-1992 Montana State University PowWow Princess , 1991
24/71 318(VI)328: Tshirgi cattle driven down through Frederick's place , 1986
24/72 38(VI)329: Feast for clan uncle by Agnes, wife of Anthony Lefthand , 1987
24/73 318(VI)330: Feast for clan uncle by Agnes, wife of Anthony Lefthand , 1987
24/74 318(VI)331: Crowd at feast for clan uncle by Agnes, wife of Anthony Lefthand , 1987
24/75 318(VI)332: Returning to clan uncle feast after putting out fire set by young boys with firecreackers, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/76 318(VI)333: Unidentified group eating, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/77 318(VI)334: Grandchildren of Annie Bear Below , undated
24/78 318(VI)335: Modern Crow cradleboard, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/79 318(VI)336: Waiting for a turn at the giveaway, Frederick and Ira Lefthand in the middle , 1987
24/80 318(VI)337: Frederick seated with a picture of his father above , 1987
24/81 318(VI)338: Dexter Falls, Down and his wife , 1986
24/82 318(VI)339: Dexter Falls, Down Family, Crow , 1986
24/83 318(VI)340: Anthony, Agnes, and family at the district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/84 318(VI)341: District championship arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/85 318(VI)342: Action at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/86 318(VI)343: District arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/87 318(VI)344: District arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/88 318(VI)345: District arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/89 318(VI)346: District arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/90 318(VI)347: View of arrows thrown at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/91 318(VI)348: View of arrows thrown at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/92 318(VI)349: Boy holding arrows at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/93 318(VI)350: Frederick Lefthand and Ralph Good Luck with drumstick , 1987
24/94 318(VI)351: A future arrow thrower at junior arrow throw competition, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/95 318(VI)352: Spectators at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/96 318(VI)353: Group photo at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/97 318(VI)354: District team tents at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/98 318(VI)355: Setting up goal for district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/99 318(VI)356: District arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/100 318(VI)357: District arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/101 318(VI)358: Contestants getting ready at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/102 318(VI)359: District arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/103 318(VI)360: Pryor district tent at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/104 318(VI)361: Frederick Lefthand at district arrow throw , 1987
24/105 318(VI)362: Judge's stand at district arrow throw, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/106 318(VI)363: Seeing who won at district arrow toss, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/107 318(VI)364: Cottonwood trees along Little Big Horn near Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/108 318(VI)365: Location where peyotists get sand for altar, north of Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
24/109 318(VI)366: Jim Old Crow and others at Lodge Grass camp , undated
24/110 318(VI)367: Catholic Church, Lodge Grass, Montana , undated
24/111 318(VI)368: Church of Latter Day Saints , undated
25/1 318(VI)369: Catholic Church , undated
25/2 318(VI)370: Sign advertising sun dance , 1987
25/3 318(VI)371: View of sun dance camp at Pryor, Montana , 1986
25/4 318(VI)372: Sun dance at Pryor, Montana , 1986
25/5 318(VI)373: Frederick Lefthand at sun dance, Pryor, Montana , 1986
25/6 318(VI)374: Ira Lefthand at sign advertising Sioux "cutting" sun dance , 1987
25/7 Some negative strips from sun dance giveaway and district arrow throw , 1987
25/8 Negatives from district arrow throw photos, Lodge Grass, Montana , 1987
25/9 318(VI)375: Robert Yellowtail in traditional dress , undated
25/10 318(VI)376: Yellowtail Dam, Montana , 1987-07-18
25/11 318(VI)377: Landscape with low hills in background , 1940
25/12 318(VI)378: Teepee in far background , 1940
25/13 318(VI)379: IXL Ranch, Tongue River Canyon, WY , 1940
25/14 318(VI)380: Unknown landscape , 1940
25/15 318(VI)381: Unknown landscape , 1940
25/16 318(VI)382: Line of people and cars in distant background , undated
25/17 318(VI)383: Line of people and cars in distant background , undated
25/18 318(VI)384: Unknown landscape featuring a lake , undated
25/19 318(VI)385: Unknown landscape , 1940
25/20 318(VI)386: Look-out type view of unknown landscape , undated
25/21 318(VI)387: View of down slope , 1940
25/22 318(VI)388: Cottonwood trees , 1940
25/23 318(VI)389: View of semi-forested slopes , 1940
25/24 318(VI)390: View of small hills above pasture , 1940
25/25 318(VI)391: Cottonwood trees , 1940
25/26 318(VI)392: Cottonwood treetops , 1940
25/27 318(VI)393: Distant view of vehicle on dirt road , 1940
25/28 318(VI)394: Cattle in rough pasture with mountains in background , 1940
25/29 318(VI)395: Unknown landscape , 1940
25/30 318(VI)396: Unknown landscape with sagebrush , 1940
25/31 318(VI)397: Road through small trees and brush , 1940
25/32 318(VI)398: Landscape , 1940
25/33 318(VI)399: Landscape , 1940
25/34 318(VI)400: Horse and barns , undated
25/35 318(VI)401: House among trees , undated
25/36 318(VI)402: Rock canyon , undated
25/37 318(VI)403: Possible old fire pit , 1940
25/38 318(VI)404: Possible old fire pit , 1940
25/39 318(VI)405: Six unknown people at table , undated
25/40 318(VI)406: Man, woman, and children , 1940
25/41 318(VI)407: Lodge Grass grade school staff (includes Fred Voget) , 1940-1941
25/42 318(VI)408: Unidentified man and woman, Boulder, Montana , 1942
25/43 318(VI)409: Man standing by remnants of teepee ring , undated
25/44 318(VI)410: Man sitting by pile of stones , undated
25/45 318(VI)411: Man standing on pile of stones , undated
25/46 318(VI)412: Man in distance , undated
25/47 318(VI)413: Bowl , undated
25/48 318(VI)414: Top view of bowl , undated
25/49 318(VI)415: Bowl , undated
25/50 318(VI)416: Bone and bead display , undated
25/51 318(VI)417: Arrowheads , undated
25/52 318(VI)418: Arrowheads , undated
25/53 318(VI)419: Arrowheads , undated
25/54 318(VI)420: Arrow or spear heads , undated
25/55 318(VI)421: Arrow or spear heads , undated
25/56 318(VI)422: Arrow or spear heads , undated
25/57 318(VI)423: Arrow or spear heads , undated
25/58 318(VI)424: Arrow or spear heads , undated
25/59 318(VI)425: Arrow or spear heads , undated
25/60 318(VI)426: Arrow or spear heads , undated
25/61 318(VI)427: Arrow or spear heads , undated
25/62 318(VI)428: Grinding stone , undated
25/63 318(VI)429: Ax heads , undated
25/64 318(VI)430: Ax heads , undated
25/65 318(VI)431: Ax head , undated
25/66 318(VI)432: Stone artifacts , undated
25/67 318(VI)433: Stone artifacts , undated
25/68 318(VI)434: Saddle , undated
25/69 318(VI)435: Saddle , undated
25/70 318(VI)436: Stones with carved dates and locations , undated
25/71 318(VI)437: Bowl and possible jewelry , undated
25/72 318(VI)438: Beaded tomahawk pendant , undated
25/73 318(VI)439: Beaded tomahawk pendant , undated
25/74 318(VI)440: Decorated and woven hide , undated
25/75 318(VI)441: Constructing sun dance lodge , undated
25/76 318(VI)442: People outside of sun dance lodge , undated
25/77 318(VI)443: Horse in foreground, crowd gathered for sun dance , undated
25/78 318(VI)444: Seated and walking groups , undated
25/79 318(VI)445: Children observing adult conversations , undated
25/80 318(VI)446: Men at center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
25/81 318(VI)447: Men at center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
25/82 318(VI)448: Men at center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
25/83 318(VI)449: Two men at center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
25/84 318(VI)450: Men at center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
25/85 318(VI)451: Men at center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
25/86 318(VI)452: Full view of center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
25/87 318(VI)453: Men looking up at center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
25/88 318(VI)454: Men at center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
25/89 318(VI)455: Men at center pole in sun dance lodge , undated
26/1 318(VI)456: Caughnawaga men, mostly steelworkers home for the weekend , undated
26/2 318(VI)457: Two men standing outside of Chief Poking Fire Indian Museum, Caughnawaga, Quebec, Ontaria , 1950
26/3 318(VI)458: Chief Poking Fire compound, Caughnawaga, Quebec, Ontario , 1950
26/4 318(VI)459: Chief Poking Fire Museum, Caughnawaga, Quebec, Ontario , 1950
26/5 318(VI)460: Entrance of Chief Poking Fire Museum, Caughnawaga, Quebec, Ontario , undated
26/6 318(VI)461: Two-story house, Six Nations , undated
26/7 318(VI)462: Min Jamieson with Chow dogs, Six Nations , undated
26/8 318(VI)463: Min Jamieson in Indian dress , ca. 1963
26/9 318(VI)464: George Jamieson, Barbara, and Dave Moses, Six Nations , undated
26/10 318(VI)465: Jo Martin, his wife Maggie, and nephew at Caughnawaga home , 1967
26/11 318(VI)466: Jo Martin in front of Caughnawaga long home , undated
26/12 318(VI)467: Mohawk school, Six Nations, Oshweken, Ontario , undated
26/13 318(VI)468: Crypt of Joseph Brant near Brantford, Ontario , undated
26/14 318(VI)469: Grandchildren of Chief Deskahe , ca. 1963
26/15 318(VI)470: Children of Dave and Barbara Moses, Six Nations , ca. 1962
26/16 318(VI)471: Church where 1703 Queen Anne's plate is held, Six Nations, near Brandford, Ontario , ca. 1962
26/17 318(VI)472: Church where 1703 Queen Anne's plate is held, Six Nations, near Brandford, Ontario , ca. 1962
26/18 318(VI)473: Old barn and wagon, Six Nations, Oshweken, Ontario , undated
26/19 318(VI)474: Nellie Scott, Arapahoe, with two dogs , undated
26/20 318(VI)475: Elk trained by Nellie Scott, Arapahoe , undated
26/21 318(VI)476: Nellie Scott, Arapahoe, in traditional dress , 1948
26/22 318(VI)477: Nellie Scott (L) in traditional dress standing with unidentified woman , undated
26/23 318(VI)478: Hungerian Imre Nag in Cheyenne Indian attire with son, David, 6 years old , 1987
26/24 318(VI)479: Group of Hungerian Plains Indians, Imre Nag (center) conducting marriage ceremony , 1983
26/25 318(VI)480: Photo of war lodge drawing , undated
26/26 318(VI)481: Photo of picture of defensive rifle pit , undated
26/27 318(VI)482: Unidentified crowd of people in front of church , ca. 1950s
26/28 318(VI)483: Custer, two other white hunters, and Indian with grizzly bear carcass , ca. 1870s
26/29 318(VI)484: White Arm's camp at Sheridan, Colorado Historical Society photo , undated
26/30 318(VI)485: Postcard title "Crow Indian Village" , undated
26/31 318(VI)486: Postcard of war lodge , undated
26/32 318(VI)487: Postcard of Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill from photo originally taken in 1885 , undated
26/33 318(VI)488: Postcard of Medicine Crow from photo originally taken in 1880 , undated
26/34 318(VI)489: Postcard of Swallow Bird, an Apsaroke Crow, from photo originally taken in 1908 , undated
26/35 318(VI)490: Postcard of Crowchild, Shiptella, from photo originally taken in 1900 , undated
26/36 318(VI)491: Postcard titled "How Custer Fell" , undated
26/37 318(VI)492: Postcard of Sitting Bull from photo originally taken in 1864 , undated
26/38 318(VI)493: Card of "Lone Tree," an Apsaroke Crow from photo originally taken in 1908 , undated
26/39 318(VI)494: Postcard of Edward Sheriff Curtis from photo taken in 1899 , undated
26/40 318(VI)495: Postcard of Native American woman , undated
26/41 318(VI)496: Postcard titled "The Circle" , undated
26/42 318(VI)497: Postcard titled "Kilauea by Day" , undated
26/43 318(VI)498: Postcard titled "Respect for Elders" , undated
26/44 318(VI)499: Postcard of wagon train on rocky moutain road , undated
26/45 318(VI)500: Postcard of Crow Indians posed in traditional dress , undated
26/46 318(VI)501: Postcard of Crow Indian wearing traditional dress, mounted on horse , undated
26/47 318(VI)502: Postcard of teepee , undated
26/48 318(VI)503: Cartoon-style postcard titled "Out Where the West Remains" , undated
26/49 318(VI)504: Postcard of bison, brown and white , undated
26/50 318(VI)505: Postcard titled "Southern Peaks of Presidential Range from Mt. Washington , undated
26/51 318(VI)506: Postcard of "Crow Indians Firing into the Agency" by Frederic Remington , undated
26/52 318(VI)507: Postcard of "Geronimo and his Band Returning from a Raid in Mexico," by Frederic Remington , undated
26/53 318(VI)508: Postcard of "Suspicious Guests" drawn by Henry F. Farny , undated
26/54 318(VI)509: Postcard of Crow Fair , 1989
26/55 318(VI)510: German postcard of possible native head dress , undated
26/56 318(VI)511: German postcard of brightly colored native artifact , undated
26/57 318(VI)512: Postcard of two present day soldiers' bronze statues , undated
26/58 318(VI)513: Crow butchering buffalo, negative only , ca. 1970s
26/59 318(VI)514: Two unidentified boys on horseback , undated
26/60 318(VI)515: Bobby Bends and Joe Medicine Crow unloading a truck , undated
26/61 318(VI)516: Lizzie Yellowtail and others sitting outside , undated
26/62 318(VI)517: Women and children sitting outside , undated
26/63 318(VI)518: Man and four children outside by fence , undated
26/64 318(VI)519: Man leaning on fence , undated
26/65 318(VI)520: House or cabin with clothesline in foreground , undated
26/66 318(VI)521: Donnie Deernose, Agnes Yellowtail, and their adopted son, Duane Bends , circa 1950s
26/67 318(VI)522: Lodgegrass, Montana street with Baptist Church in background , undated
26/68 318(VI)523: View of mountain peaks with snow , undated
26/69 318(VI)524: View of building , undated
26/70 318(VI)525: View of house in trees with car passing , undated
26/71 318(VI)526: View of building , undated
26/72 318(VI)527: View of urban house in trees , undated
26/73 318(VI)528: View of building , undated
26/74 318(VI)529: Man and woman seated on sofa , undated
26/75 318(VI)530: Cedric Walks Over Ice and boy standing outside , undated
26/76 318(VI)531: Man seated in armchair , undated
26/77 318(VI)532: View of church , undated
26/78 318(VI)533: Religious painting with priest on left , undated
26/79 318(VI)534: Man in shadow, house in background , undated
26/80 318(VI)535: Man in shadow, house in background , undated
26/81 318(VI)536: Man in shadow, house in background , undated
26/82 318(VI)537: Chokecherries drying , undated
26/83 318(VI)538: Unloading buffalo from stock trucks , circa 1973
26/84 318(VI)539: Kitchen crew in buffalo pasture , circa 1973
26/85 318(VI)540: People by tents , undated
26/86 318(VI)541: Vehicles in deep shadow , undated
26/87 318(VI)542: Marshall, Melvin, Frederick, and Anthony Left Hand standing by truck with Everett Whiteman, undated
26/88 318(VI)543: View of houses from hill , undated
26/89 318(VI)544: View of houses from hill , undated
26/90 318(VI)545: Distant view of man herding small number of cattle , undated
26/91 318(VI)546: Black Canyon Youth Camp , undated
26/92 318(VI)547: Black Canyon Youth Camp , undated
26/93 318(VI)548: Black Canyon Youth Camp , undated
26/94 318(VI)549: Peter Plenty Hawk standing by truck , undated
26/95 318(VI)550: Clothesline with unidentified objects in front of house , undated
26/96 318(VI)551: Partially constructed sun dance lodge , undated
26/97 318(VI)552: Tarp/covered pile in fenced enclosure , undated
26/98 318(VI)553: Lodge Grass High School , undated
26/99 318(VI)554: Older man and woman, both with braids, in front of house , undated
26/100 318(VI)555: Older man and woman, both with braids, in front of house , undated
26/101 318(VI)556: Older man with braids, seated , undated
26/102 318(VI)557: Overexposed photo of man and woman in front of house , undated
26/103 318(VI)558: Two men seated on bench , undated
26/104 318(VI)559: Woman typing , undated
26/105 318(VI)560: Woman typing , undated
26/106 318(VI)561: Blackfeet tribal office , undated
26/107 318(VI)562: Blackfeet tribal office , undated
26/108 318(VI)563: Cabin with trees in background , undated
26/109 318(VI)564: Distant view of house , undated
26/110 318(VI)565: View of building , undated
26/111 318(VI)566: View of downtown street , undated
26/112 318(VI)567: View of dirt road with houses , undated
26/113 318(VI)568: View of building , undated
26/114 318(VI)569: View of street , undated
26/115 318(VI)570: Man standing in front of doorway , undated
26/116 318(VI)571: Man and woman in front of tent and car , undated
26/117 318(VI)572: Three small children in front of house , undated
26/118 318(VI)573: Man on tractor , undated
26/119 318(VI)574: Man and woman on dirt path , undated
26/120 318(VI)575: Man on dirt path , undated
26/121 318(VI)576: Woman on dirt path , undated
26/122 318(VI)577: View of small houses , undated
26/123 318(VI)578: Man standing near stone monument , undated
26/124 318(VI)579: Station wagon in front of house , undated
26/125 318(VI)580: Small house , undated
26/126 318(VI)581: View of distant houses , undated
26/127 318(VI)582: View of distant houses , undated
26/128 318(VI)583: View of building with some snow , undated
26/129 318(VI)584: Woman leaving downtown building , undated
26/130 318(VI)585: Four children in front of houses , undated
26/131 318(VI)586: View of downtown street , undated
26/132 318(VI)587: Man in front of museum-type wall display , undated
26/133 318(VI)588: Man in front of museum-type wall display , undated
26/134 318(VI)589: Seated man taking notes , undated
26/135 318(VI)590: Seated man taking notes , undated
26/136 318(VI)591: Man at record player , undated
26/137 318(VI)592: Man at record player , undated
26/138 318(VI)593: Logs in front of shed , undated
26/139 318(VI)594: Logs by shed , undated
26/140 318(VI)595: Man on tractor , undated
26/141 318(VI)596: Man on tractor , undated
26/142 318(VI)597: Boys seated by pulley or winch , undated
26/143 318(VI)598: Pile of scrap lumber , undated
26/144 318(VI)599: Man posed by building , undated
26/145 318(VI)600: View of cabin at Pryor, Montana, undated
26/146 318(VI)601: William Big Day and his wife by house by house in Pryor, Montana , undated
26/147 318(VI)602: Teepee frame at Pryor, Montana , undated
26/148 318(VI)603: Man in front of stone monument , undated
26/149 318(VI)604: Cattle in pasture , undated
26/150 318(VI)605: Little Big Horn Battlefield, Montana, undated
26/151 318(VI)606: Little Big Horn Battlefield, Montana , undated
26/152 318(VI)607: Three children , undated
26/153 318(VI)608: Bends family , undated
26/154 318(VI)609: Man with three children , undated
26/155 318(VI)610: Adlow Harris and children , undated
26/156 318(VI)611: Joe Medicine Crow , undated
26/157 318(VI)612: John Whiteman and Amy with the Fritzler brothers in front of house , undated
26/158 318(VI)613: Small boy , undated
26/159 318(VI)614: Three children , undated
26/160 318(VI)615: Man seated on sofa , undated
26/161 318(VI)616: Priest standing by small boy , undated
26/162 318(VI)617: Adlow Harris with baby and two children , undated
26/163 318(VI)618: Woman on swing set , undated
26/164 318(VI)619: Seated man , undated
26/165 318(VI)620: Five unidentified adults , undated
26/166 318(VI)621: Man and woman in traditional Native American attire , undated
26/167 318(VI)622: Children in truck , undated
26/168 318(VI)623: House and shed , undated
26/169 318(VI)624: Row of houses , undated
26/170 318(VI)625: Church , undated
26/171 318(VI)626: Building , undated
26/172 318(VI)627: Residential street , undated
26/173 318(VI)628: Trees , undated
26/174 318(VI)629: Parade float , ca. 1950s
26/175 318(VI)630: House and barn in the distance , undated
26/176 318(VI)631: Houses in the distance , undated
26/177 318(VI)632: Houses , undated
26/178 318(VI)633: Joe Blaine, Matthew Good Luck, Steve Bird, Herbert Blanc, and Josephine Gets Down drumming , undated
26/179 318(VI)634: Man with child in stroller , undated
26/180 318(VI)635: Man holding child , undated
26/181 318(VI)636: Boy and toddler , undated
26/182 318(VI)637: Man and boy , undated
26/183 318(VI)638: Four children , undated
26/184 318(VI)639: Five children , undated
26/185 318(VI)640: Two men in shadow, seated in front of blackboard , undated
26/186 318(VI)641: Audience in shadow , undated
26/187 318(VI)642: Three people seated at desk , undated
26/188 318(VI)643: Three people seated at desk , undated
26/189 318(VI)644: Audience , undated
26/190 318(VI)645: House , undated
26/191 318(VI)646: House , undated
26/192 318(VI)647: Men standing outside of building , undated
26/193 318(VI)648: Large white house , undated
26/194 318(VI)649: Small yellow house , undated
26/195 318(VI)650: Arrow throw competition , undated
26/196 318(VI)651: Arrow throw competition , undated
26/197 318(VI)652: Five adults posed in front of store , undated
26/198 318(VI)653: Two people on horseback visiting with two other people , undated
26/199 318(VI)654: Clara Bends, Agnes Yellowtail, Ferale Pease, Bill Pease, and three children posed in front of Crow Indian Baptist Mission , undated
26/200 318(VI)655: White house with fence , undated
26/201 318(VI)656: Two people on horseback visiting with woman and two children , undated
26/202 318(VI)657: Boy , undated
26/203 318(VI)658: Log house , undated
26/204 318(VI)659: Two women seated on bench , undated
26/205 318(VI)670: Distant view of truck, corrals, and shed , undated
26/206 318(VI)671: Two men on horseback and three cars , undated
26/207 318(VI)672: Castle Rocks, Pryor, Montana , undated
26/208 318(VI)673: Castle Rocks, Pryor, Montana , undated
26/209 318(VI)674: Man by loaded truck , undated
26/210 318(VI)675: Tarp covered mound , undated
26/211 318(VI)676: Crow Agency BIA , undated
26/212 318(VI)677: People seated in shadow , undated
26/213 318(VI)678: Teepee and tent , undated
26/214 318(VI)679: Man on porch in shadow , undated
26/215 318(VI)680: Man in front of small house , undated
26/216 318(VI)681: Man in front of porch , undated
26/217 318(VI)682: Man in field by gray house , undated
26/218 318(VI)683: Man in field by gray house , undated
26/219 318(VI)684: Crow sun dance preparatory dance, Tom Yellowtail, medicine man, and Thomas Lion Shows, sponsor , 1975
26/220 318(VI)685: Praying and singing over center pole before raising , 1975
26/221 318(VI)686: Veteran Joe Blaine marking pole with charcoal , 1975
26/222 318(VI)687: Dancer in traditional Crow sun dance attire , undated
26/223 318(VI)688: Marshall and Ira Lefthand , circa 1976
26/224 318(VI)689: Three Crow boys on horses , 1975
26/225 318(VI)690: Six Nations band , undated
26/226 318(VI)691: Spear Siding above Lodge Grass, Montana , undated
26/227 318(VI)692: Poles for dance stalls, Crow sun dance , 1975
26/228 318(VI)693: People gathered inside sun dance lodge , 1975
26/229 318(VI)694: Man in street clothes seated in lodge , 1975
26/230 318(VI)695: Overexposed view inside sun dance lodge , 1975
26/231 318(VI)696: Joe Alden, Renard Cartet, and others at sunrise service on last day , 1975
26/232 318(VI)697: Overexposed view of people inside sun dance lodge , 1975
26/233 318(VI)698: Overexposed view of people inside sun dance lodge , 1975
26/234 318(VI)699: Overexposed view of people inside sun dance lodge , 1975
26/235 318(VI)700: People entering sun dance lodge , 1975
26/236 318(VI)701: Sun dancers getting soup and soda pop after dance , 1975
26/237 318(VI)702: Sun dancer in front of car , 1975
26/238 318(VI)703: Man seated in shadow , 1975
26/239 318(VI)704: People outside sun dance lodge , 1975
26/240 318(VI)705: People standing and seated by car , undated
26/241 318(VI)706: People outside of sun dance lodge , undated
26/242 318(VI)707: John Truhujostanding in front of tents , undated
26/243 318(VI)708: James Bear Below and Gladys Ann Littleness seated under canopy , undated
26/244 318(VI)709: People around table by white house , undated
26/245 318(VI)710: Janice Old Crow with child in river , undated
26/246 318(VI)711: Three children in Little Big Horn River , undated
26/247 318(VI)712: Child in Little Big Horn River , undated
26/248 318(VI)713: Janice Old Crow rinsing pants in Little Big Horn River , undated
26/249 318(VI)714: Frederick Left Hand and three children in Little Big Horn River , undated
26/250 318(VI)715: Four children in Little Big Horn River , undated
26/251 318(VI)716: One person in Little Big Horn River , undated
26/252 318(VI)717: Boy riding bareback , undated
26/253 318(VI)718: Truck by portable outhouse , undated
26/254 318(VI)719: Boy and horse in front of rickety cabin , undated
26/255 318(VI)720: Two men and two horses, one man shoeing horse , undated
26/256 318(VI)721: Man shoeing horse , undated
26/257 318(VI)722: Crow Fair arena with bucking bull in center , undated
26/258 318(VI)723: Crow Fair arena with racing horses coming in on far side , undated
26/259 318(VI)724: Crow Fair arena with racing horse coming in on far side , undated
26/260 318(VI)725: Crow Fair arena with bucking bull in center , undated
26/261 318(VI)726: Sunset shot with Wolf Mountains in very distant background , undated
26/262 318(VI)727: Sunset shot with Wolf Mountains in very distant background , undated
26/263 318(VI)728: Very distant shot of fire at treetop level , undated
26/264 318(VI)729: Very distant shot of fire at treetop level , undated
26/265 318(VI)730: Yellowrobe, first recipient of Pete Lefthand Award , undated
26/266 318(VI)731: Sunset shot by water , undated
26/267 318(VI)732: Statue of man and horse in Cody, Wyoming , undated
26/268 318(VI)733: Gathering of people in shadows , undated
26/269 318(VI)734: Joe Medicine Crow , undated
26/270 318(VI)735: Man, woman, and boy in foreground , undated
26/271 318(VI)736: Santa Maria , undated

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Subjects

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the online catalog. Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons, or places should search the catalog using these headings.

  • Occupations :
  • Anthropologists--United States
  • Ethnologists--United States
  • Subject Terms :
  • Blackfeet Indians
  • Crow Indians
  • Crow Indians--Photographs
  • Crow Indians--Rites and ceremonies
  • Crow language
  • Indians of North America
  • Iroquois Indians
  • Shoshoni Indians
  • Siksika Indians
  • Form or Genre Terms :
  • Photographs

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