Guide to the George Bird Grinnell Collection

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Overview of the Collection

Creator: Grinnell, George Bird, 1849-1938
Title: George Bird Grinnell Collection
Dates: 1870-1970 ( inclusive )
Quantity: 4.1 linear feet
Collection Number: Mss 204
Summary: This collection consists mostly of photocopies and/or transcripts of the journal entries and correspondence of George Bird Grinnell as well as research notes prepared by Dr. Gerald Diettert and Dr. H. Duane Hampton in preparing Diettert's book Grinnell's Glacier: George Bird Grinnell and Glacier National Park, 1992.
Repository: University of Montana, Mansfield Library, Archives and Special Collections
Contact Information: Archives and Special Collections
Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library
University of Montana
32 Campus Dr. #9936
Missoula, MT
Telephone: 406-243-2053
Fax: 406-243-4067
Languages: Materials are in English 
Sponsor: Funding for encoding this finding aid was provided through a grant awarded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Biographical Note

An author, naturalist and explorer who was one of the nation's foremost advocates of game and forest conservation, George Bird Grinnell was born in Brooklyn, New York on September 20. 1849, the son of George Blake and Helen Lansing Grinnell. When he was seven his family moved to Audubon Park, a section of Washington Heights in which noted ornithologist James Audubon had his estate. Years later, Grinnell would be the organizer of the first Audubon Society.

Upon receiving his undergraduate degree from Yale University in 1870, Grinnell went west for six months with an expedition of the Peabody Museum at New Haven to collect vertebrate fossils. In 1874 General Custer invited him along as a naturalist on his expedition to the Black Hills.

Grinnell received a Ph.D. from Yale in 1880. His work, however, was concentrated mainly in the West where he became well versed on the Plains Indians, writing about the Blackfeet, the Cheyenne and the Pawnees. He wrote authoritative volumes also about game birds of America, particularly ducks, emphasizing the sharp decline in numbers and species. In his lifetime he wrote twenty-six books and edited eight more. From 1880 to 1911 he served as editor and president of Forest and Stream, a weekly periodical devoted to outdoor life. Grinnell co-founded the American Game Association in 1911 and was, at one time, chairman of the Council on National Parks, Forests and Wildlife. He was also affiliated with the National Parks association.

In addition, Grinnell was instrumental in the creation of Glacier National Park in Northwestern Montana, a reserve of one million acres of mountain country. The Grinnell Glacier in the St. Mary's Region in Montana, one of his discoveries, was named in his honor. Throughout his lifetime he wrote extensively in defense of preservation and conservation. An extensive traveler and explorer until well into his seventies, Grinnell suffered a heart attack at his home in New York in July of 1929. Although the initial prognosis was grim he recovered slowly. Age and persistent illness kept Grinnell in the East during his final years. He passed away on April 11, 1938 at the age of eighty-eight.

Content Description

This collection consists mostly of photocopies and/or transcripts of the journal entries and correspondence of George Bird Grinnell as well as research notes prepared by Dr. Gerald Diettert and Dr. Duane Hampton in preparing Diettert's book Grinnell's Glacier: George Bird Grinnell and Glacier National Park in 1992.

Use of the Collection

Restrictions on Access :  

Researchers must use collection in accordance with the policies of Archives and Special Collections, the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, and The University of Montana--Missoula.

Restrictions on Use :  

Researchers are responsible for using in accordance with 17 U.S.C. and any other applicable statutes. Copyright not transferred to The University of Montana. Any publication permissions must be obtained from the original sources of the material.

Preferred Citation :  

[Name of document], George Bird Grinnell Collection, Archives and Special Collections, Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, The University of Montana--Missoula.

Administrative Information

Arrangement :

The collection is divided into three series:

Series I: Research Notes, 1870-1970

Series II: Photographs, undated

Series III: 2012 Additions, 1968-1987

Location of Originals :  

This collection containes reproductions from original sources in the Glacier National Park Archives, The Birdcraft Museum, Nebraska State Historical Society, and The Southwest Museum.

Custodial History :  

Dr. Duane Hampton and Dr. Gerald Diettert obtained these materials as part of their research and held them until donation to the archives.

Acquisition Information :  

Gift of Dr. Duane Hampton, 1992

Processing Note :  

The actions of the original processors are unknown. The collection was reprocessed in 1998. Archives staff left the materials essentially in the order in which they were compiled by Hampton and Diettert. Some correspondence and clippings were left as found, if they seemed integral to the research notes they were housed with. Most, however, were moved to separate folders at the end of the series.

Related Materials :  

The Mansfield Library Archives and Special Collections also holds the H. Duane Hampton papers (Mss 815), which includes similar research files.

Detailed Description of the Collection

Series I:  Research Notes , 1870-1970

The series constitutes the bulk of this collection: seven boxes of folders containing copies of journal entries by Grinnell, correspondence to and from Grinnell, and research notes. Most of this material relates to the area of Glacier National Park, before during and after its creation, the people Grinnell spent time there with and Grinnell's efforts to bring about the creation of the Park.

1/1 List of holdings by Southwest Museum, Glacier National Park, and Birdcraft Museum
There is also a letter from Dr. Hampton to Raymon Gonyea, Acting Curator of the Museum of the Plains Indians, in Browning, Montana, dated 30 June, 1970.
1/2 1884
1/3 1885
1/4 1886
1/5 1887
1/6 1888
1/7 1889
1/8 1890
1/9 1891
1/10 1892
1/11 1894
1/12 1895
1/13 1896
1/14 1897
1/15 1898
1/16 1899
1/17 1900
1/18 1901
1/19 1902
1/20 1903
1/21 1904
1/22 1905
1/23 1906
1/24 1907
2/1 1908
2/2 1909
2/3 1910
2/4 1911
2/5 1912
2/6 1913
2/7 1914
2/8 1915
2/9 1916
2/10 1917
2/11 1918
2/12 1919
2/13 1920
2/14 1921
2/15 1922
2/16 1923
2/17 1924
2/18 1925
2/19 1926
2/20 1927
2/21 1928
2/22 1929
2/23 1930
2/24 Research Notes undated
2/25 George Bird Grinnell's notes on the establishment of Glacier National Park
2/26 Water reclamation in the St. Mary's region
2/27 National Park Suggestions Catlin 1832, Van Orsdale 1883, Grinnell 1891
2/28 Glacier Park Trip 1885
2/29 Military in Glacier National Park
2/30 Trip 1887
2/31 Trip 1891
2/32 Ceded Strip 1895
2/33 Forest Reserves
2/34 Minerals in Glacier National Park
2/35 Crown of the Continent
2/36 Thomas Carter
2/37 Boone and Crockett Club
2/38 Grinnell, "Old Days"
2/39 Grinnell, Hunting
2/40 Grinnell, Conservation
2/41 Glacier Legislation, Montana
2/42 Blackfeet, Other Indians
2/43 Glacier as Wilderness
2/44 Hough
3/1 Schultz
3/2 J.W Schultz
3/3 Grinnell, Business
3/4 Grinnell, Honors
3/5 Glacier National Park, Improvements After Establishment
3/6 Lobbying
3/7 Glacier Park Names
3/8 Grinnell, Father of Glacier National Park
3/9 T. Roosevelt
3/10 Forest and Stream
3/11 Elizabeth Grinnell
3/12 Glacier Boundaries, Francois E. Matthes
3/13 Dams and Reservoirs
3/14 Joseph Kipp
3/15 Hugh Monroe
3/16 Black Hills Expedition 1874
3/17 Louis Hill, Great Northern Railroad
3/18 Unknown Love
3/19 Mapping
3/20 Public and Private Support for Glacier National Park
3/21 Audubon Park, 15th Street.
3/22 George Gould
3/23 Charles Pray
3/24 Jack Monroe
3/25 Ballenger
3/26 Grinnell's Humility
3/27 Little Whirlwind Case
3/28 Grinnell, Explorer
3/29 Billy Jackson
3/30 Grinnell's Ranch 1883
3/31 Grinnell, Naturalist
3/32 Grinnell, Author
3/33 Henry L. Stimson
3/34 Stimson, Ascent of Chief Mountain (Climbed in 1892)
3/35 Pinchot
3/36 C.M. Russell
3/37 O.C. Marsh
3/38 E.S. Curtis
3/39 Lyman Sperry
3/40 Grinnell, Ethnologist
3/41 Liquor and Forest Reserve
3/42 Luther North
3/43 Harriman Expedition
3/44 Morton J. Elrod
3/45 L.O. Vaught
3/46 Grinnell's Indian Names
3/47 Custer Anniversaries
3/48 Grinnell, Health
3/49 Guide Incident, Crowding
3/50 Grinnell History, Glacier National Park 3
4/1 Prices, Rooms, Saddle Horses 1922
4/2 Boy Scouts
4/3 Barings (by Dawson) also Stimson, Monroe
4/4 Later Years, George Bird Grinnell
4/5 Letters to Lummis, Southwest Museum
4/6 Correspondence from Montana Historical Society and National Park Service re. George Bird Grinnell "Memories" 1956, 1962
4/7 Journal, 1887 12 Nov., 21 Nov. Glacier, #2 Southwest Museum
4/8 Journal, 1889 9 Aug. Yellowstone National Park with Hague, Browning,Vancouver, etc. #309 Southwest Museum
4/9 George Bird Grinnell Diary, October 1901. #336 Southwest Museum
4/10 Grinnell, Bent and Brown correspondence, University of Colorado Libraries
4/11 Cession of Glacier National Park by Montana
4/12 Glacier National Park Organic Act
4/13 Matthes, Reasons for Glacier National Park
4/14 George Bird Grinnell, introduction, T.R. "Hunting Trips of a Ranchman", N.Y. Zoological. B & G character
4/15 Whiskey Trade 1888, 90, St. Mary's and Blackfeet Reservation
4/16 Glacier National Park Thesis, Early History 1947
4/17 Dee Brown intro, Biosketch
4/18 George Bird Grinnell, bio by Madison Grant and others
4/19 Grinnell, Obituaries
4/20 "Memories," George Bird Grinnell
4/21 Various Biographies
4/22 Books by George Bird Grinnell
4/23 Chronology, George Bird Grinnell
4/24 Grinnell, Correspondence, Museum of Natural History
4/25 Casley Cave
4/26 George Bird Grinnell, Bibliography, Forest and Stream
4/27 Bent's Fort, History, George Bird Grinnell
4/28 Natural History "An Old Time Bonehunt" George Bird Grinnell 4
5/1 Letters, Rudolph Petter to George Bird Grinnell re: Cheyenne 1912, 1915
5/2 Custer. Black Hills fr. Black Hills Engineer
5/3 Black Hills Expedition. Correspondence, Yale 1874
5/4&4A Luther North, Correspondence 1877, 1934
5/5 Linderman Papers, University of Montana, Correspondence, George Bird Grinnell
5/6 Glacier, Mather
5/7 Blackfeet Agreement 1896
5/8 Blackfoot National Forest, Glacier
5/9 Glacier National Park Archival Material on George Bird Grinnell
5/10 Joe Cosley
5/11 George Bird Grinnell Diary June 1897
5/12 Grinnell, McLaughlin, Ballenger Papers
5/13 Series 1, Folder 1, Nebraska State Historical Society
5/14 Tenure of Land Among the Indians, American Anthropology, George Bird Grinnell 1907
5/15 John Munroe, Letters etc.
5/16 Duncan McDonald, Address February 22, 1915.
5/17 Two Great Scouts, Mss., Nebraska State Historical Society, 5
6/1 Grinnell to Hodge, Southwest Museum: 1898, 1901, 1902, 1906, 1919, 1927
6/2 Correspondence from John Jay White 1909
6/3 Letters, George Hyde to George Bird Grinnell 1908, 1921
6/4 Letters, R.M. Peck, concerning "Wolf Hunters" Mss. #50 Southwest Museum 1908
6/5 Letters, Sec of Interior, Beef Reduction, Mss. #42 Southwest Museum 1902
6/6 Letters, Luther North to George Bird Grinnell, Mss. #19 Southwest Museum 1889
6/7 Letters, A Van Der Velden to George Bird Grinnell re: Cheyenne Vocabulary, Mss. #4 Southwest Museum 1896, 1897
6/8 F.W. Hodge
6/9 Correspondence, Henry McDonald 1907, 1920
6/10 Grinnell, W.S. Campbell Collection, University of Oklahoma
6/11 Rep. Vreeland to Grinnell, Seneca Land Allotment, Mss. #36 Southwest Museum
6/12 Schultz to Grinnell, Mss. #53 Southwest Museum
6/13 Grinnell, American Museum of Natural History
6/14 Grinnell, Audubon Park 1927
6/15 Grinnell, Bird Lore Letter of Retirement from Audubon Society 1934
6/16 Natural History, "A Chapter of History and Natural History in Old New York" 1920
6/17 Charles Sheldon, Birdcraft Museum
6/18 Correspondence, George Bent, Mss. #41 Southwest Museum 1906
6/19 George Bird Grinnell to Hitchcock, Mes. Columbia University
6/20 Grinnell, Rochester, illus. Correspondence, Gorilla Articles
6/21 Grinnell Correspondence, Nebraska State Historical Society, Series 1, Folder 2 1924
6/22 Grinnell Correspondence, Nebraska State Historical Society, Series 1, Folder 3 1925
6/23 Grinnell Correspondence, Nebraska State Historical Society, Series 1, Folder 4 1927
6/24 Grinnell Correspondence, Nebraska State Historical Society, Series 1, Folder 5 1928
6/25 Grinnell Correspondence, Nebraska State Historical Society, Series 1, Folder 6 1929
6/26 Grinnell Correspondence, Nebraska State Historical Society, Series 1, Folders 7&8 1934
6/27 Notes from Mss. of the Nebraska State Historical Society
6/28 Journal, 1870, 14, 30 July, Marsh Expedition, Mss. #292, Southwest Museum
6/29 Journal, 1874, 2 Feb., 22 Aug., Black Hills Expedition, Custer. Mss. #293 Southwest Museum
6/30 Journal, 1874, 1875, 23 Aug.16 Sep., Black Hills Expedition, Mss. #294, Southwest Museum
6/31 Journal, 1882, 28 Aug., 3 Sep., Wyoming Mines, Mss. #298, Southwest Museum
6/32 Journal, 1884, 22 Aug., 20 Sep., Ocean Pass, Mss. #'s 300, 301, Southwest Museum
6/33 Journal, 1886, 1 Sep., 1 Oct., Yellowstone National Park, Mss. #304, Southwest Museum
6/34 Journal, 1895, 4 June, Laramie, Wyoming Ranch, Mss. #324, Southwest Museum
6/35 Journal, 1904, 17 Sep., YNP and Northern Cheyenne, Mss. #340, Southwest Museum
7/1 Indian Art. Mss. #368, Southwest Museum 1920s
7/2 Protecting Yellowstone National Park, Reservoir, Mss. #470, Southwest Museum
7/3 Book Reviews, Southwest Museum
7/4 Grinnell, Journal of American Folklore, "Some Early Cheyenne Tales." 1907
7/5 Grinnell, Journal of American Folklore, "Some Early Cheyenne Tales." 1908
7/6 Grinnell, Journal of American Folklore, "Falling Star." 1921
7/7 Grinnell, American Anthropologist, "Marriage among the Pawnees." 1891
7/8 Grinnell, American Anthropologist, "Cheyenne Woman Customs." 1902
7/9 Grinnell, American Anthropologist, "Notes on some Cheyenne Songs." 1903
7/10 Grinnell, American Anthropologist, "Some Cheyenne Plant Medicines." 1905
7/11 Grinnell, American Anthropologist, "Cheyenne Stream Names." 1906
7/12 Grinnell, American Anthropologist, 1913, "Indian Stream Names" and 1920, "Who Were the Padouca?"
7/13 Grinnell, American Journal of Science and Arts, "On a New Crinoid From the Cretatious Formation of the West." 1876
7/14 Grinnell, American Journal of Science and Arts, "On a New Tertiary Lake Basin." 1876
7/15 Grinnell, American Journal of Science and Arts, "Notice of a New Genus of Annelids From the Lower Silurian." 1877
7/16 Grinnell, Atlantic Monthly, "The Wild Indians" 1899
7/17 Grinnell, The Century, "Snipe Shooting." 1883
7/18 Wyoming Trip, Forest and Stream 1878
7/19 Journal, James T.R. Wilson, Trip to Yellowstone National Park (incomplete) 1875
7/20 Grinnell, Library Holdings
7/21 Grinnell, Library Sale 1952
7/22 Grinnell, T. Roosevelt Letters 1897
7/23 Grinnell, Brooklyn Eagle, Clippings
7/24 Grinnell to Bowman, Newspaper Clipping 1920, 1921
7/25 List of Photos, Glacier National Park, Statue of Liberty National Monument
7/26 Letters, Book Reviews
7/27 J.F. Reiger, Dissertation "George Bird Grinnell and the Development of American Conservation, 1870, 1901" 1970
7/28 George Bird Grinnell, Bibliographies and Appendices
7/29 George Bird Grinnell, Pawnee Book Reviews, Personal Correspondence
7/30 General Correspondence
7/31 Clippings, Primarily from Forest and Stream

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Series II:  Photographs , undated

This series consists of four photographs collected and/or created by the researchers (Hampton and Diettert) in the course of their research. All content descriptions were inscribed onto the photographs by the researchers. Reliable dates could not be determined for any of the photographs.

7/32 204(II):1: Unidentified woman (perhaps Elizabeth Grinnell) undated
7/33 204(II):2: Topographical map of Glacier National Park undated
7/34 204(II):3: Sketch map of the St. Mary's region, drawn by George Bird Grinnell undated
7/35 204(II):4: Group photograph including two White men (one probably George Bird Grinnell) and five Indian males, sitting in front of a white building (perhaps the agency building) undated

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Series III:  2012 Additions, 1923-1987
0.6 linear feet

Materials in this subseries include research files and notes, a George Bird Grinnell microfilm index, and correspondence between Dr. H. Duane Hampton and the Birdcraft Museum, the Southwest Museum, and university libraries with Grinnell materials.

8/1 Birdcraft Museum 1976-1977
8/2 Birdcraft Museum, Fund Request 1976-1977
8/3 Browning 1968-1970
8/4 Glacier 1968 and undated
8/5 Joslyn Museum 1983-1987
8/6 Microfilm Index undated
8/7 Miscellaneous Corrections undated
8/8 J.H. Sherburne 1923 and undated
8/9 Southwest Museum 1976 and undated
8/10 Southwest Museum, Film Index undated
8/11 Stark Museum 1983
8/12 State Historical Societies 1967
8/13 Research undated
9/1 To Do 1968-1971
9/2 University Libraries with Material 1967-1968

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This collection is indexed under the following headings in the online catalog. Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons, or places should search the catalog using these headings.

  • Personal Names :
  • Grinnell, George Bird, 1849-1938.
    • Geographical Names :
    • Glacier National Park (Mont.)
    • Form or Genre Terms :
    • Photographs
      • Other Creators :
      • Diettert, Gerald A.
      • Hampton, H. Duane (Harold Duane), 1932-

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