Guide to the Bob Brown Oral History Project

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Overview of the Collection

Creator: Brown, Bob, 1947 Dec. 11-
Title: Bob Brown oral history project
Dates: 2005-2010 ( inclusive )
Quantity: 70 interviews
Collection Number: Oh 396
Summary: From 2005-2010, former Montana congressman Bob Brown conducted oral history interviews with a variety of political figures in Montana. The interviewees ranged from state legislators, lobbyists, attorneys and journalists, to Montana Constitutional Convention delegates and officials in administrative and financial branches of the Montana State government. A few highlights within the topics are Montana and the Anaconda Company, the recurring sales tax referendum, mining, elections, deregulation, and the legislative process over time.
Repository: University of Montana, Mansfield Library, Archives and Special Collections
Contact Information: Archives and Special Collections
Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library
University of Montana
32 Campus Dr. #9936
Missoula, MT
Telephone: 406-243-2053
Fax: 406-243-4067
Languages: Materials are inEnglish. 

Biographical Note

Bob Brown was born in Missoula, Montana, on December 11, 1947, but grew up on his family's grain and cattle ranch near Whitefish, Montana. He obtained a bachelor's degree in history from Montana State University-Bozeman in 1970 and a master's degree in education from the University of Montana-Missoula in 1988. He spent two years in the Navy, from 1971 to 1972, and married Susan Stoeckig in 1975. They have two daughters. Over 27 years, he taught government, history, and economics at three high schools in western Montana, and coached speech and debate teams.

At the age of 22 Brown became one of the youngest Montanans ever elected to the state House of Representatives. He served two terms in the House and was elected to the Senate in 1974. He served in the Senate through 1996, when term limits prevented him from running again. He was Senate president in his legislative session. Brown became a lobbyist for a telephone company, aluminum plant, and the Montana university system for four years and then was elected Montana Secretary of State in 2000 with 51 percent of the vote in a four-way race. Brown began a campaign for governor in July 2003 and faced three opponents for the GOP nomination. He won with 39 percent of the vote, a 16-point margin over the second-place finisher, but lost the election to Democratic candidate Brian Schweitzer.

In January 2005 Bob Brown returned to The University of Montana when he joined the O’Connor Center for the Rocky Mountain West as a senior fellow. Creating this oral history collection from 2005-2010 is just one of the projects he undertook in that position.

Content Description

From 2005-2010, Bob Brown conducted oral history interviews with a variety of political figures in Montana. The interviewees ranged from state legislators, lobbyists, attorneys and journalists, to Montana Constitutional Convention delegates and officials in administrative and financial branches of the Montana State government. A few highlights within the topics are Montana and the Anaconda Company, the recurring sales tax referendum, mining, elections, deregulation, and the legislative process over time.

Use of the Collection

Restrictions on Access :  

Researchers must use collection in accordance with the policies of Archives and Special Collections, the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, and The University of Montana-Missoula.

Restrictions on Use :  

Researchers are responsible for using in accordance with 17 U.S.C. and any other applicable statutes. Copyright transferred to The University of Montana.

Preferred Citation :  

[Name of document or photograph number], Bob Brown Oral History Project, Archives and Special Collections, Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, The University of Montana-Missoula.

Administrative Information

Custodial History :  

The interviews were recorded by Bob Brown before deposit in the Archives and Special Collections.

Acquisition Information :  

As he completed the recording of one or more interviews from 2005-2010 Bob Brown donated them to Archives and Specials Collections.

Processing Note :  

Bob Brown recorded the interviews in digital format. Archives and Special Collections personnel transcribed the interviews.

Detailed Description of the Collection

OH 396-001: Interview with James Patten
Sound Recording, digital, 412 MB, Wav
Transcript, 41 leaves
Patten discusses his work as a lobbyist in Montana during the 1960s. He also talks about working with Governor Tim Babcock. He reminisces about Governors Donald Nutter and Ted Schwinden and other lobbyists with whom he worked.
1 March 2005
OH 396-002: Interview with John Delano
Sound Recording, digital, 308 MB, Wav
Transcript, 39 leaves
Delano talks about his career as a lobbyist and describes some of the other lobbyists he knew. He discusses various changes in Montana politics from the 1950s to 2005 including the 1972 Constitutional Convention, term limitations, and the role lobbyists play in Montana politics. He also describes working with various Montana governors and provides anecdotes about each one.
10 March 2005
OH 396-003: Interview with Ward Shanahan
Sound Recording, digital, 374 MB, Wav
Transcript, 36 leaves
Shanahan, a former railway association lobbyist, provides various anecdotes about his time working with the legislature including former governors, important issues, watering holes, the Anaconda Company and Montana Power Company, many influential legislators, and his relationship with Wellington Rankin.
10 March 2005
OH 396-005: Interview with James Haughey
Sound Recording, digital, 291 MB, Wav
Transcript, 24 leaves
Haughey, a former legislator and a former lobbyist, describes the legislature in 1945 and onward, Anaconda lobbyists and hospitality room, governors and politicians, hunting trips with politicians, and sales tax reform and other political issues of his day.
15 March 2005
OH 396-006: Interview with Carle O'Neil
Sound Recording, digital, 372 MB, Wav
Transcript, 30 leaves
O’Neil discusses how his career began in politics, various legislators who were influential, various important issues in the legislature, and influences of the Anaconda Company and Montana Power Company. He ends by describing his campaign for re-election.
18 March 2005
OH 396-007: Interview with Dale McGarvey
Sound Recording, digital, 396 MB, Wav
Transcript, 27 leaves
McGarvey was a Democratic member of the Montana House of Representatives 1957-1959, a lawyer, and active in Montana public affairs. He discusses legislation he either supported or encountered in the House (education, occupational disease/silicosis/workers’ compensation, public utility districts), the Anaconda Company lobbyists and their influence in politics, his relationship with other Montana politicians, McCarthyist accusations against him, and suspected vote-buying by Montana corporations.
18 March 2005
OH 396-008: Interview with Ty Robinson
Sound Recording, digital, 419 MB, Wav
Transcript, 32 leaves
Robinson discusses his recollections of Montana governors whom he met while working as a lobbyist, the influences of the Montana Power Company and Anaconda Company on Montana politics, and various significant politicians. He provides anecdotes of his time working in politics and ends by detailing the various roles of a lobbyist.
23 March 2005
OH 396-009: Interview with W. Gordon McOmber
Sound Recording, digital, 402 MB, Wav
Transcript, 41 leaves
McOmber describes his affiliation with the Farmer’s Union as a young politician, the effects of the Montana Power Company and the Anaconda Company on Montana politics, and his terms in the legislature. He details his relationships with various legislators, governors, and lobbyists. He ends by giving a description of the legislature’s procedures before and after the new 1972 Montana constitution.
23 March 2005
OH 396-010: Interview with Lloyd Crippen and R. Lewis Brown, Jr.
Sound Recording, digital, 434 MB, Wav
Transcript, 35 leaves
Former lobbyist (Crippen) and attorney (Brown) for the Anaconda Company describe how they got connected with the Company, Crippen initially through his father-in-law and Brown after army service, law school and government work focused on labor relations. They recall experiences working for the Anaconda Company including reviewing and promoting Montana legislation, the Company’s hospitality room, relationships with legislators and other prominent figures, and other anecdotes of the time from 1955 through the 1970s.
4 April 2005
OH 396-011: Interview with Jack Gunderson
Sound Recording, digital, 417 MB, Wav
Transcript, 33 leaves
Gunderson, a former Montana legislator, recalls being raised as a Democrat, the Farmers Union, the Farm Labor Coalition, the 1972 Constitutional Convention and its continuing impact, Anaconda Company influence, and various legislation. He describes his interactions with legislators, former governors, and his relationships with other Montana political figures.
21 April 2005
OH 396-012: Interview with Joe A. Renders
Sound Recording, digital, 253 MB, Wav
Transcript, 20 leaves
Renders, a Montana lobbyist, public relations specialist, and journalist, describes his liberal political background, the personalities of politicians he has known in his career, the Anaconda Company’s involvement in state politics, control of the press in Montana, dynamics at the Great Falls Tribune, and advice for liberals of the future.
21 April 2005
OH 396-013: Interview with Norris Nichols
Sound Recording, digital, 419 MB, Wav
Transcript, 42 leaves
Nichols, a former Montana legislator, describes his career in Montana politics and the family influences that persuaded him to run for the legislature. He goes on to describe his relationships with various Montana governors, politicians, and lobbyists before moving into a description of the Anaconda Company’s heavy influence on Montana politics for many decades.
21 April 2005
OH 396-014: Interview with Matt Himsl
Sound Recording, digital, 415 MB, Wav
Transcript, 24 leaves
Himsl begins with his arrival in Kalispell, Montana, in 1945 and recalls his 60 years of community service including 24 years as a state legislator. He offers his impressions of and interactions with governors and legislators including Wellington D. Rankin and Governors Nutter, Aronson, and Babcock. Himsl includes anecdotes and discussions of issues including state sales tax and the Anaconda Company.
22 April 2005
OH 396-015: Interview with Marshall Murray
Sound Recording, digital, 419 MB, Wav
Transcript, 32 leaves
Murray, former Montana legislator and floor leader of the Constitutional Convention, explains how he became interested in politics and the influences on his choice of party affiliation. He recalls working with former Montana governors and their personalities, influential legislators, lobbyists. The interview ends with Murray’s explanation of his role in the Montana Constitutional Convention and the process of getting the new document adopted.
24 April 2005
OH 396-016: Interview with Robert S. Gilully
Sound Recording, digital, 424 MB, Wav
Transcript, 34 leaves
Gilluly begins with a discussion of his family’s experience in journalism and then discusses his experiences working for The Great Falls Tribune, the Missoulian, and the Ravalli Republican. He extensively addresses the issue of press control by the Anaconda Company. He talks about politicians he has known in Montana
27 April 2005
OH 396-017: Interview with Allen Kolstad
Sound Recording, digital, 313 MB, Wav
Transcript, 35 leaves
Kolstad, former Montana legislator and lieutenant governor, reviews his time in politics in Montana including descriptions of influential legislators, issues, and lobbyists. He describes his campaign with Stan Stephens. Kolstad explains his involvement in national politics including relationships with Montana congressmen and Presidents Reagan, Bush Sr., and George W. Bush.
3 June 2005
OH 396-018: Interview with Robert Poore
Sound Recording, digital, 434 MB, Wav
Transcript, 29 leaves
Poore, a Butte, Montana, attorney, discusses the interaction between the Anaconda Company and the city of Butte, Montana. He describes the Columbia Gardens Amusement Park. He discusses his relationship with the William A. Clark family (his wife’s grandfather was Francis Wharton, Clark’s “right-hand man”), the John Ryan family, the Cornelius Kelley family, and others. He talks about the Anaconda Company lobbyists and executives that he knew personally; his law practice in Butte and some of the cases he tried during the McCarthy era; and politicians he knew. He ends with comments on the relationship between the Anaconda Company, Montana Power, and Montana society.
27 April 2005
OH 396-019: Interview with John Lahr
Sound Recording, digital, 1.19 GB, Wav
Transcript, 57 leaves
Lahr, former Montana Power Company lobbyist, discusses the workings of the Montana Power Company during the 1960s up until the 1980s. He tells stories of interaction between former legislators, governors, and other lobbyists and subjects such as territorial integrity, the Constitutional Convention, relationship with the Anaconda Company, and history of the Montana Power Company, providing an in-depth review of working as a Montana Company lobbyist.
27 April 2005
OH 396-020: Interview with Tim Babcock
Sound Recording, digital, 435 MB, Wav
Transcript, 29 leaves
Babcock, former Montana governor, discusses his early political career, his relationship to and the death of Governor Don Nutter, his relationship with other local and national politicians (Forrest Anderson, Hugo Aronson, Dwight Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Wellington Rankin, Mike Mansfield and others), and the influence of the Anaconda Company on Montana politics.
29 April 2005
OH 396-021: Interview with Jerome Anderson
Sound Recording, digital, 1.21 GB, Wav
Transcript, 60 leaves
Anderson, Republican lawyer, oil lobbyist and Montana state legislator, discusses his involvement in state politics and his relationship with other state politicians, beginning with recollections of his father’s political career before turning to his own first congressional session in 1947. He also discusses some of the key issues during his terms in office such as the Yellowtail Dam controversy, gambling regulation, Anaconda Company and Montana Power Company political dealings, public utility districts, the formation of the Montana legislative council, sales tax, the 1972 Constitutional Convention, and coal and oil industry taxation. Anderson also describes the the mock congressional sessions that he organized in the 1950s and 1960s. Finally, Anderson notes changes in tenor in the state legislature from his early days to the present.
4 May 2005
OH 396-022: Interview with J. Michael Pichette
Sound Recording, digital, 421 MB, Wav
Transcript, 24 leaves
Pichette was a Northwestern Corporation executive, a Montana Democrat with a long career in politics and public service, and a former executive director of the Democratic Party in Montana. He describes working for Montana Congressmen Olson and Melcher in Washington, D.C.; organizing political campaigns for and general impressions of Montana politicians, including Governor Ted. Schwinden, for whom he worked; the 1972 Constitutional Convention; the coal severance tax; changes in the Democratic Party; electrical deregulation; and his experiences working for Montana Power and Northwestern Corporation.
5 May 2005
OH 396-023: Interview with John E. Sheehy
Sound Recording, digital,402 MB, Wav
Transcript, 28 leaves
Sheehy talks about his interest in politics at a young age and the political and social climate of Butte, Montana, when he was growing up. He describes Montana politicians he has known (Jerry O’Connell, Jim Murray, Wellington Rankin, Mike Mansfield, John Metcalf, Ted Schwinden, others). He talks about Anaconda lobbying techniques and personalities. He ends with a discussion of his time on the Supreme Court.
8 June 2005
OH 396-024: Interview with Gordon Bennett
Sound Recording, digital, 403 MB, Wav
Transcript, 26 leaves
Bennett, a District judge and public servant, begins by discussing his childhood in Depression and drought era Scobey, Montana, mentioning the desperation that led to the election of communists in the 1930s. He talks about the rise of the Farmers Union in Montana and the business of farming in the state, the issue of press control by the Anaconda Company, his involvement in Lee Metcalf’s political campaigns, contrasts Metcalf and Mansfield, involvement in Forest Anderson’s campaign, and other Montana politicians he has known.
8 June 2005
OH 396-025: Interview with James P. Lucas
Sound Recording, 399 digital, MB, Wav
Transcript, 31 leaves
Lucas, a former legislator, describes how he became interested in politics and his political philosophy. He discusses the lobbyists, Montana governors and fellow legislators with whom he worked. He also provides anecdotes about various pieces of legislation during his 1962-1972 stint in the Montana Legislature.
6 June 1995
OH 396-026: Interview with Clyde Hawks
Sound Recording, digital, 64.5 MB, Wav
Transcript, 31 leaves
Hawks, speaker of the Montana House of Representatives in 1961, discusses his first congressional race in 1948 and many of the politicians he served with, the influence of the Anaconda Company and Montana Power Company on state politics and the lobbyists who worked for them, the establishment of the prison ranch in Deer Lodge, the peyote bill, Yellowtail Dam bill, Montana Stock Growers Association, the Public Utility District bill, and Montana governors and other politicians he served with in the House
5 June 2005
OH 396-027: Interview with John H. Leuthold
Sound Recording, digital, 444 MB, Wav
Transcript, 32 leaves
Leuthold provides his recollections of former governors such as Nutter, Babcock, Schwinden and influential legislators during his term in the Montana House of Representatives, 1950-1968. He also recalls his experience in the 1972 Montana Constitutional Convention.
6 July 2005
OH 396-028: Interview with Leslie Eskildsen
Sound Recording, digital, 71.5 MB, Wav
Transcript, 36 leaves
Eskildsen explains his personal relationships with prominent Montana legislators, congressmen, and governors especially during his terms in the Montana House of Representatives from 1954 to 1964. He describes issues with the Montana State Penitentiary in Deer Lodge. He recalls his experience in the 1972 Montana Constitutional Convention and specific issues of the time.
8 July 2005
OH 396-029: Interview with Antoinette Fraser Rosell
Sound Recording, digital, 55.5 MB, Wav
Transcript, 24 leaves
Fraser Rosell, a former Montana legislator, describes influences leading to her party affiliation, her early legislative work, and relationships with other members of the Montana legislature. She recalls the trend in female interest in politics while she was in the legislature. She compares the new and old state constitutions.
6 July 2005
OH 396-030: Interview with William Mathers
Sound Recording, digital, 405 MB, Wav
Transcript, 32 leaves
Mathers, a former Montana legislator and Senate president, describes how he became interested in and involved with politics in Montana. He compares and contrasts the state government and parties of Texas and Montana and their influence over his party affiliation. He recalls partisan issues that were fought in the legislature including public utility districts, budget cuts, Anaconda Company and Montana Power Company influences, and the sales tax. He recalls strong legislators and governors, as well as his work on the Board of Regents for the state university system.
7 July 2005
OH 396-031: Interview with Edward Smith
Sound Recording, digital, 71 MB, Wav
Transcript, 32 leaves
Smith, a former Montana legislator, describes his involvement on important legislation, the Wheat Commission, resolving the rural electricity issue by amending a previous bill, and participation in the Senate Finance Commission in Montana. He gives his impressions of former governors, legislators, and running for governor.
7 July 2005
OH 396-032: Interview with Magnus Aasheim
Sound Recording, digital, 407 MB, Wav
Transcript, 28 leaves
Aasheim, a former Montana legislator and delegate to the 1972 Montana Constitutional Convention, describes his initial interest in politics, his first campaign for the election to the House of Representatives in 1959, his first legislative session, and his experiences during the Montana Constitutional Convention. He discusses the various governors that he served with and his impressions of influential legislators.
7 July 2005
OH 396-033: Interview with Eugene C. Tidball
Sound Recording, digital, 366 MB, Wav
Transcript, 25 leaves
Raised in Billings, Montana, Tidball, the first director of Montana Legislative Council, 1960s lawyer and lobbyist for the Anaconda Company, attended The University of Montana from 1949-1955, graduating with degrees in business and law. He discusses his work as the first director of the Montana Legislative Council, which attempted to make the legislative process more modern, functional and efficient. From there, he assesses legislators who stood out to him. Tidball began working as a lawyer and sometime-lobbyist for the Anaconda Company in 1965. He describes other Anaconda lawyers, lobbyists, and key company players, as well as lobbying strategies (including the use of a hospitality room). He finishes by describing some reasons for the waning power and influence of the company in the 1970s, the sale of the company to Atlantic Richfield Company, and the closing of the mine.
1 October 2005
OH 396-034: Interview with Tom Rolfe
Sound Recording, digital, 326 MB, Wav
Transcript, 19 leaves
Rolfe, a former Montana legislator and conservative leader, discusses how he became interested in politics as a youth, his continued activity as a teenager and young adult, and finally his role at the Republican National Convention of 1975, where he sought to nominate Ronald Reagan for president. Rolfe discusses this convention and his views on Ronald Reagan at length.
27 September 2005
OH 396-035: Interview with James Mockler
Sound Recording, digital, 213 MB, Wav
Transcript, 15 leaves
Mockler, a former Montana legislator and lobbyist for the mining industry, describes his background in Wyoming and moves on to the effects of Montana and Wyoming’s coal taxes in 1975. Mockler details the effect of the coal tax on Montana’s coal business contracts, his relationship with Governor Schwinden and the “window of opportunity.” He ends with his opinion of coal bed methane development
28 September 2005
OH 396-036: Interview with Orvin Fjare
Sound Recording, digital, 189 MB, Wav
Transcript, 12 leaves
Fjare, a former Montana legislator, begins by describing how he became interested in politics. He explains how the Anaconda Company’s support helped him get elected to the U.S. Congress in 1954. Later he describes how the Anaconda Company’s intense oversight and pressure led him to break off the relationship. Fjare discusses his relationships with Presidents Eisenhower, Nixon, and Ford. He describes his involvement with the Yellowtail Dam project and other major issues during his time in Congress
20 January 2005
OH 396-037: Interview with Louise Galt and Jack Galt
Sound Recording, digital, 413 MB, Wav
Transcript, 39 leaves
Mr. Galt is a state senator, president of state senate, and Republican national committeeman while Mrs. Galt was a young county attorney in Fergus County, active in Republican politics, and was the widow of Wellington Rankin. The couple discusses their families’ backgrounds in Montana politics and their own evolving political awareness and activity. Each gives their impressions of governors and legislators in Montana, as well as the role of the Anaconda Company in state politics. Louise talks extensively about the activities of her late husband, Wellington Rankin, attorney general, state Supreme Court justice, and brother of Jeannette Rankin.
3 December 2005
OH 396-038: Interview with Stan Stephens
Sound Recording, digital, 378 MB, Wav
Transcript, 24 leaves
Stan Stephens is a broadcast journalist and recipient of the Edward R. Murrow Prize, state senator, and former Republican governor of Montana. An immigrant from Canada, Stephens begins the interview with a description of his career in broadcast journalism. In 1969, he was elected to the state senate and served for 16 years before running for governor, an office he held from 1989-1993. Other topics include his political campaigns and his tenure as governor, with reference to the 1972 Constitutional Convention, coal and sales tax, education (including vocational), lobbyists, budgetary issues, and Native American reservations and social issues. Stephens gives his impressions of a number of legislators, governors, lobbyists, and presidents.
17 November 2005
OH 396-039: Interview with Jean A. Turnage
Sound Recording, digital, 371 MB, Wav
Transcript, 24 leaves
Former Montana State Supreme Court Chief Justice Turnage describes his past involvement in law and his inspirations to run for public offices. He describes his time in the legislature, introduced bills, and ends by describing his work in the Montana State Supreme Court. He explains generally how cases are heard at the Supreme Court as well as specific incidents.
3 January 2006
OH 396-040: Interview with Thomas Towe
Sound Recording, digital, 832 MB, Wav
Transcript, 59 leaves
Towe, former Montana legislator, begins by telling various stories about the Montana Copper Kings and the Anaconda Company. This leads to his lengthy discussion on the development of the coal tax bill and the coal trust fund. He recollects various events and issues during his time in the legislature.
10 February 2006
OH 396-041: Interview with Jake Frank
Sound Recording, digital, MB, Wav
Transcript, 31 leaves
Frank, a former Montana legislator, describes issues in the legislature including rural electric co-ops and the Anaconda Company. He ends by describing his work in the Rural Electrification Association and the Farmers Union and Farmers Home Association and issues in agriculture.
OH 396-042: Interview with Alfred Lewis Bishop
Sound Recording, digital, 466 MB, Wav
Transcript, 31 leaves
Bishop, a former Montana legislator and Fish and Game commissioner, describes issues he encountered while he was with the Fish and Game. He recalls anecdotes during his earlier years as a Billings attorney and other influential lawyers. He describes his various campaigns for the legislature and for the Republican primary for governor. He ends by describing his relationships with previous governors and speculates on the future of Montana.
17 August 2007
OH 396-043: Interview with Neil Lynch
Sound Recording, digital, 425 MB, Wav
Transcript, 34 leaves
Lynch, a former Montana legislator, discusses his career in politics including the Anaconda Company, the Montana Power Company, his relationships with governors Forrest Anderson, Tom Judge, Stan Stephens, and other influential legislators, and issues of the time including sales tax, term limits, the Constitutional Convention, lobbyists, and foreign investments.
16 November 2007
OH 396-044: Interview with Jack Schlitz
Sound Recording, digital, 386 MB, Wav
Transcript, 29 leaves
Schiltz, a former Montana legislator, describes the influence of the Montana Power Company and the Anaconda Company on Montana politics during the 1950s and his work at the Montana Constitutional Convention.
17 Sepetember 2007
OH 396-045: Interview with Karl Ohs
Sound Recording, digital, 263 MB, Wav
Transcript, 21 leaves
Karl Ohs, former Lieutenant Governor, legislator, and FBI negotiator at the Freemen standoff provides an in depth look at his involvement as a negotiator during the Freemen standoff near Jordan, Montana, in 1996, the Freeman trial, and the aftermath.
4 August 2007
OH 396-046: Interview withTed Schwinden
Sound Recording, digital, 474 MB, Wav
Transcript, 26 leaves
Schwinden, a former Montana legislator and governor from 1981-1989, begins by describing his growing interest in politics during high school and his activity in Roosevelt County, Montana. He discusses the legislature and provides stories about his dealings with other former governors and legislators including Forrest Anderson, Tim Babcock, Tom Judge, and Stan Stephens. He offers his perspective on issues such as the Resource Indemnity Trust, university funding, and gerrymandering. He ends by describing how Montana has changed over a century and possibilities for the future.
18 August 2007
OH 396-047: Interview with Bill Norman
Sound Recording, digital, 435 MB, Wav
Transcript, 33 leaves
Norman, a Montana legislator from 1970-1990, recalls growing up in Minnesota and the earliest political influences that led him to become a Democrat. He credits his first political interest and activity with interest in Minnesotan Gene McCarthy, a U.S. senator. He discusses the legislature and provides stories about his dealings with other former governors and legislators including Dorothy Bradley, Thomas Towe, Luke McKeon, Jim Murray (lobbyist), Forrest Anderson, Tom Judge, Ted Schwinden, and Stan Stephens. He offers his perspective on issues such as coal development, the coal tax, abortion and the future of Montana.
26 May 2006
OH 396-048: Interview with Thomas Judge
Sound Recording, digital, 433 MB, Wav
Transcript, 29 leaves
Judge, the Montana governor from 1972 to 1980, describes how he became interested in politics as a young man and his eventual election to the legislature. He describes the influence of the Anaconda Company and the Montana Power Company, coal development, the Federal Strip Mine Reclamation Act, and the Constitutional Convention. He explains his relationships with governors and legislators including Forrest Anderson, Tim Babcock, Ted Schwinden, Lee Metcalf, John Melcher, and Mike Mansfield. He ends with his opinion on Montana's future.
18 August 2006
OH 396-049: Interview with Jim Murray
Sound Recording, digital, 491 MB, Wav
Transcript, 33 leaves
Murray, a former leader in Montana AFL/CIO and related labor unions, discusses his involvement with the AFL/CIO from 1968-1991, the labor movement in Montana, and worker’s rights. He discusses various influential leaders including Lee Metcalf, Mike Mansfield, Arnold Olsen, and Chet Blaylock
11 October 2006
OH 396-050: Interview with Dorothy Eck
Sound Recording, digital, 484 MB, Wav
Transcript, 32 leaves
Eck, a member of the League of Women Voters, a 1972 Montana Constitutional Convention delegate, and Montana legislator for five terms, 1980-2000, explains the events that guided her interests in politics, her eventual membership and presidency of the Montana League of Women Voters and discusses issues backed by that organization. She discusses her experience in the Montana Senate, 1980-2000, and describes former political leaders such as Mike Mansfield, Lee Metcalf, Arnold Olsen, and various influential legislators. At the end of the interview, she gives a detailed account of her participation in the Montana Constitutional Convention.
22 May 2007
OH 396-051: Interview with Harrison Fagg
Sound Recording, digital, 349 MB, Wav
Transcript, 49 leaves
Fagg, a former Montana legislator (1968-1984) of Billings, Montana, recalls his family’s political nature and that influence on his political philosophy, his involvement with the Junior Chamber of Commerce, and his eventual relationship with Congressman Jim Batten. He explains his initial reactions to being in the legislature, relationships with various legislators, and legislation for the environmental movement. Specific issues include the Hard Rock Mining Bill, a sales tax campaign, a proposed coal moratorium, and the League of Towns and Cities.
29 March 2008
OH 396-052: Interview with Lloyd C. “Sonny” Lockrem
Sound Recording, digital, 426 MB, Wav
Transcript, leaves
Lockrem, from Billings, Montana, is a former Montana legislator (1971-1981) and lobbyist for the Montana Contractors Association. He recalls experiences in the Marine Corp and working in a family construction business that peaked his interest in politics and running for the legislature. He details his relationships with former lobbyists, particularly from the Anaconda Company and Montana Power Company, and former Governor Tom Judge. He also explains the effect of single-member districts, implemented by the 1972 Constitutional Convention, on Yellowstone County politics. Other specifics include a proposed sales tax bill, the Anaconda Company, Governor Tom Judge, and natural resources.
29 March 2008
OH 396-053: Interview with Bob Marks
Sound Recording, digital, 428 MB, Wav
Transcript, leaves
Marks, of Helena, Montana, is a former state legislator of Jefferson County (1969-1989) and former Speaker of the House in Montana. He describes becoming interested in politics early and his affiliation with the Republican Party. He contrasts his campaign for election to the House of Representatives with today’s process and he describes his first impressions of the legislature and of influential politicians. He discusses territorial integrity, coal mining, the influence of the Anaconda Company and Montana Power Company, and his relationship with various lobbyists. Marks ends with his impressions of various Governors Judge, Anderson, Stephens, and Schwinden, and their administrations and the future of Montana.
11 January 2008
OH 396-054: Interview with Judy Paynter
Sound Recording, digital, 687 MB, Wav
Transcript, leaves
Paynter, a former legislative fiscal analyst and deputy budget director, discusses her experiences with financial affairs in the Montana legislature over more than 25 years. She explains her fiscal responsibilities including budget preparation, tax increases, and revenue estimation. She compares the administrations of Governors Schwinden, Stephens, Racicot, Martz, and Schweitzer, and the general effectiveness of each.
1 August 2008
OH 396-055: Interview with Dave Lewis
Sound Recording, digital, 645 MB, Wav
Transcript, leaves
Lewis, a former budget analyst and Montana legislator, describes his 40 year participation in politics including his work as budget director, campaign contributor, director of the Department of Administration, director of the State Board of Investments, and as a member of the Montana legislature where he served as chairman of the House Appropriations Committee. Lewis discusses the pros and cons of being a partisan politician and reflects on changing governmental trends in Montana. Lewis maintains some focus on Governors Judge, Schwinden, Stephens, Racicot and Martz; their agendas; and conflicts during various administrations.
22 August 2008
OH 396-056: Interview with John D. Lynch
Sound Recording, digital, 409 MB, Wav
Transcript, leaves
Lynch, a former Montana legislator from Butte, Montana, discusses his family history and the events leading up to his work in Montana politics. He describes campaigning in Butte, his work on the House Appropriations Committee, the influence of the Montana Power Company and the Anaconda Company on Montana politics, and discusses governors that he served with including Tom Judge, Ted Schwinden, Stan Stephens, and Marc Racicot. He recalls other issues including a coal moratorium and term limits.
25 August 2008
OH 396-057: Interview with Joe Mazurek
Sound Recording, digital, 384 MB, Wav
Transcript, leaves
Mazurek, a former Montana State Senator and gubernatorial candidate, discusses his involvement in ASUM [Associated Students of the University of Montana] while attending The University of Montana-Missoula. He briefly discusses influential politicians through his years in the Montana Senate, the Montana Power Company and Anaconda Company’s role in Montana politics, various lobbyists, controversial bills, and past governors, Ted Schwinden and Stan Stephens.
25 September 2008
OH 396-058: Interview with Greg Jergeson
Sound Recording, digital, 454 MB, Wav
Transcript, 33 leaves
Jergeson, a former Montana State senator, describes his over thirty years, beginning in the 1970s, in the Montana State Senate, mostly in terms of fellow politicians. He talks about Francis Bardanouve’s mentorship during the early part of his political career. He also reminisces about fellow legislators including Fred Van Valkenburg, John Mercer, Bruce Crippen and Governors Judge, Schwinden, Racicot, Stevens and Martz.
29 July 2009
OH 396-059: Interview with Mike Halligan
Sound Recording, digital, 409 MB, Wav
Transcript, 31 leaves
Halligan, a former Montana State Senator, lieutenant gubernatorial candidate and lobbyist, discusses his twenty years (1980-2000) serving in the Montana State Senate and why he became involved in politics. He talks about fellow legislators (Chet Blaylock, Jean Turnage, Francis Bardanouve, Bill Norman, Joe Mazurek, and Bruce Crippen) and lobbyists with whom he worked and reflects on Governors Schwinden, Stephens, Racicot, Martz and Schweitzer. He talks about the Montana Power Company’s influence and describes work on de-regulation, sales tax and term-limits and talks about his run for the lieutenant governorship with gubernatorial candidate Dorothy Bradley.
29 July 2009
OH 396-060: Interview with Fred Van Valkenburg
Sound Recording, 475 digital, MB, Wav
Transcript, 27 leaves
Van Valkenburg, a Missoula County County Attorney, former Montana State Senator, and former Montana State Senate Majority Leader, describes his Catholic upbringing and how that along with John Kennedy’s presidency inspired him to run for public office. He reminisces about his years as the Montana Senate’s Majority Leader and serving with Representatives Jean Turnage, Matt Himsl, Francis Bardanouve and others. He discusses working with Montana governors Tom Judge, Ted Schwinden, Stan Stephens, Marc Racicot. He recalls legislation like de-regulation and the coal tax.
23 June 2009
OH 396-061: Interview with Dan W. Harrington
Sound Recording, digital, 491 MB, Wav
Transcript, 47 leaves
Harrington, a former Montana state legislator and Montana Constitutional Convention delegate, discusses the Anaconda Company and its influence on Butte, mining operations, and Montana state politics. He describes deregulation of electricity in the state and Montana Power Company lobbyists. He also talks about the 1972 Montana Constitutional Convention and the changes made to the constitution that affected the Anaconda Company.
8 October 2009
OH 396-062: Interview with Dorothy Bradley
Sound Recording, digital, 451 MB, Wav
Transcript, 38 leaves
Bradley, a former Montana state legislator, and state gubernatorial candidate, describes the events that drew her to run for the Montana House of Representatives at the age of 23. She talks about being the only woman in the Montana House in 1971 and her introduction of the abortion bill in Montana. She discusses fellow legislators including John Hall, Dan Yardley, Ken Nordtvedt, Francis Bardanouve, and Mike Halligan. She recalls her environmental activism as a representative and her unsuccessful campaign for governor in 1992.
29 September 2009
OH 396-063: Interview with Daniel Kemmis
Sound Recording, digital, 385 MB, Wav
Transcript, 23 leaves
Kemmis, a former Montana state legislator and former Speaker of the Montana House of Representatives, reminisces about his family’s politics and his college years at Harvard and how they influenced him to run for public office. He talks about Montana governors Tom Judge and Ted Schwinden. He discusses different lobbyists with whom he worked and the role the Anaconda Company and the Montana Power Company played in Montana politics.
9 December 2009
OH 396-064: Interview with Fred Thomas
Sound Recording, digital, 479 MB, Wav
Transcript, 35 leaves
Thomas, a former Montana state senator and gubernatorial candidate, discusses his 20-plus years serving in the Montana State Legislature. He describes how his family’s involvement in politics encouraged him to become a politician. He briefly talks about fellow legislators including Elmer Severson, Bill Groff, Bob Marks, Jack Ramirez, and Bob Thoft. He also discusses his introduction of the deregulation bill and its effect on Montana’s economy.
31 March 2010
OH 396-065: Interview with John Mercer
Sound Recording, digital, 451 MB, Wav
Transcript, 30 leaves
Mercer, a former Montana state legislator and Speaker of the Montana House, describes his early experiences in the Montana House and fellow legislators including Dave Brown, Francis Bardanouve, Jack Ramirez, John Vincent, Hal Harper, Bob Thoft, John Harp, Fred Thomas and Fred Van Valkenburg. He talks about his leadership philosophy as Speaker and the role of the Republicans in the Montana Legislature during the 1990s. He also discusses governors Ted Schwinden, Marc Racicot, Stan Stephens, Judy Martz, and Brian Schweitzer.
2 April 2010
OH 396-066: Interview with John Vincent
Sound Recording, digital, 506 MB, Wav
Transcript, 30 leaves
Vincent, a former Montana state legislator and Speaker of the House, describes his interest in political science and how that influenced him to run for public office. He discusses his leadership roles in the Montana House of Representatives and Speaker of the House, Minority Leader, and Majority Whip. He talks about members of the House as well as Montana governors Stan Stephens, Ted Schwinden and Brian Schweitzer.
22 April 2010
OH 396-067: Interview with Alec Hansen
Sound Recording, digital, 496 MB, Wav
Transcript, 35 leaves
Hansen, a lobbyist for the Montana League of Cities and Towns, reminisces about growing up in Butte, Montana, during the 1940s and 1950s. Hansen discusses working for Montana Governor Forrest Anderson, describing the governor’s work style and vision for Montana state politics.
15 April 2010
OH 396-068: Interview with Bruce Crippen
Sound Recording, digital, 461 MB, Wav
Transcript, 32 leaves
Crippen, a former Montana state senator, talks about his twenty years of service as a Montana state senator. He describes working with Montana governors Stan Stephens, Marc Racicot and Judy Martz. He also discusses his involvement in Marc Racicot’s gubernatorial campaign.
27 May 2010
OH 396-069: Interview with Elin G. Parks
Sound Recording, digital, 215 MB, Wav
Transcript, 24 leaves
Elin G. Parks, a former professional dancer and model, talks about her grandfather, former U. S. Senator Thomas Walsh. She discusses his career and the details surrounding his death. She also talks about her life as the wife of a naval officer and Mobile Oil employee.
4 September 2010
OH 396-070: Interview with John T. Hoag
Sound Recording, digital, 232 MB, Wav
Transcript, 15 leaves
Hoag talks about living on Lake McDonald in Glacier National Park. He reminisces about spending time with two Montana senators, Tom Walsh and Burton K. Wheeler, and their families.
September 2010
OH 396-071: Interview with John Cobb
Sound Recording, digital, 723 MB, Wav
Transcript, 81 leaves
Cobb, a former Montana state representative, discusses his introduction to politics and why he decided to run for the Montana State Legislature. He describes his years in the legislature and fellow legislators including Bob Marks, Chuck Swysgood, Leo Giaocometta, and John Mercer. He also talks about the different governors he served under including Judy Martz, Marc Racicot, and Stan Stephens. He finishes with speculation on the future on the Republican Party, the Tea Party and the Montana State Legislature.
29 September 2010


This collection is indexed under the following headings in the online catalog. Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons, or places should search the catalog using these headings.

  • Personal Names :
  • Aasheim, Magnus, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Anderson, Forrest Howard, 1913-1989
  • Anderson, Jerome, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Aronson, J. Hugo (John Hugo), 1891-1978
  • Babcock, Tim, 1919-, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Bardanouve, Francis, 1917-2002--Influence
  • Bennett, Gordon, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Bishop, Alfred Lewis, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Blaylock, Chet, 1924-
  • Bradley, Dorothy M., 1947- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Brown, Dave, 1948-
  • Brown, R. Lewis, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Cobb, John, 1954- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Crippen, Bruce D., 1932- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Crippen, Lloyd, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Delano, John, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Eck, Dorothy, 1924- ,interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Eskildsen, Leslie, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Fagg, Harrison, 1931- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Fjare, Orvin B. (Orvin Benonie), 1918- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Frank, Jake, 1915- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Galt, Jack E., 1923-2007, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Galt, Louise R., 1923-, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Giacometto, Leo A., 1962-
  • Gilluly, Robert S., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Groff, William, 1920-
  • Gunderson, Jack, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Hall, John
  • Halligan, Mike, 1949- , interviewee
  • Hansen, Alec, 1941- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Harp, John G., 1952-
  • Harper, Hal, 1948-
  • Harrington, Dan W. (Dan William), 1938- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Haughey, James, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Hawks, Clyde, 1918-, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Himsl, Matt, 1912-2006, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Hoag, John T., 1914- interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Jergeson, Greg, 1950- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Judge, Thomas L., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Kemmis, Daniel, 1945- , interviewee  ( interivewee)
  • Kennedy, John F.(John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963--Influence
  • Kolstad, Allen, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Lahr, John, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Leuthold, John H.,1907-2005, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Lewis, David M., 1942- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Lockrem, Lloyd C., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Lucas, James P., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Lynch, John D., 1947- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Lynch, Neil, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Mansfield, Mike, 1903-2001
  • Marks, Bob
  • Marks, Robert L., 1932- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Martz, Judy
  • Mathers, William, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Mazurek, Joe, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • McGarvey, Dale, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • McOmber, W. Gordon, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Mercer, John A., 1957- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Metcalf, Lee, 1911-1978
  • Mockler, James, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Murray, James W., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Murray, Marshall, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Nichols, Norris, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Nordtvedt, Ken, 1939-
  • Norman, William J. (William James), 1922-, interviewee
  • Nutter, Donald Grant, 1915-1962
  • Ohs, Karl, 1946- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Olsen, Arnold, 1916-1990
  • O'Neil, Carle, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Parks, Elin G., 1920- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Patten, James, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Paynter, Judy, 1949- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Pichette, J. Michael, intervieweee  ( interviewee)
  • Poore, Robert, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Racicot, Mark
  • Ramirez, Jack, 1939-
  • Rankin, Wellington Duncan, 1884-1966
  • Reagan, Ronald
  • Renders, Joe A., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Robinson, Ty, interviewee  ( interivewee)
  • Rolfe, Tom, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Rosell, Antoinette Fraser, 1926-, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Schiltz, Jack M., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Schweitzer, Brian, 1955-
  • Schwinden, Ted, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Severson, Elmer D., 1922-
  • Shanahan, Ward, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Sheehy, John C., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Smith, Edward, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Stephens, Stan, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Swysgood, Charles, 1939-
  • Thoft, Bob, 1929-
  • Thomas, Fred, 1958- interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Tidball, Eugene C., 1930-, interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Towe, Thomas, 1937- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Turnage, Jean A., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Van Valkenburg, Fred R., interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Vincent, John C., 1942- , interviewee  ( interviewee)
  • Walsh, Thomas James, 1859-1933
  • Wheeler, Burton K. (Burton Kendall), 1882-1975
  • Yardley, Dan, 1928-
  • Family Names :
  • Lynch, John D., 1947---family
  • Thomas, Fred, 1958---family
  • Walsh, Thomas James, 1859-1933--family
  • Wheeler, Burton K. (Burton Kendall), 1882-1975--family
  • Corporate Names :
  • Anaconda Company
  • Anaconda Company--Political activity--Montana
  • Atlantic Richfield Co.
  • Great Falls Tribune
  • Harvard University--Alumni and alumnae--Interviews
  • League of Women Voters of Montana  ( subject )
  • Mobil Oil Company--Employees
  • Montana Farmers Union
  • Montana League of Cities and Towns
  • Montana Power Company
  • Montana Power Company--Political activity--Montana
  • Montana Stockgrowers Association
  • Montana. Constitutional Convention (1971-1972)
  • Montana. Dept. of Fish and Game
  • Montana. Governor (1960-1962 : Nutter)
  • Montana. Governor (1962-1969 : Babcock)
  • Montana. Governor (1981-1989 : Schwinden)
  • Montana. Legislature. House of Representatives
  • Montana. Legislature. House of Representatives--Appropriations Committee
  • Montana. Legislature. House of Representatives--Majority whips--Interviews
  • Montana. Legislature. House of Representatives--Minority leaders--Interviews
  • Montana. Legislature. House of Representatives--Speakers--Interviews
  • Montana. Legislature. Senate
  • Montana. Supreme Court
  • Republican National Convention
  • Republican Party (Mont.)
  • Republican Party (U.S. : 1854- )--Montana--Interviews
  • Tea Party Patriots
  • United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • United States--Navy--Officers
  • University of Montana--Missoula--Alumni and alumnae--Interviews
  • University of Montana--Missoula--Associated Students
  • Geographical Names :
  • Anaconda (Mont.)--History
  • Butte (Mont.)
  • Butte (Mont.)--History--20th century
  • Butte (Mont.)--Politics and government--20th century
  • Glacier National Park (Mont.)
  • McDonald, Lake (Mont.)
  • Montana--Politics and government--20th century
  • Roosevelt County (Mont.)--History
  • Scobey (Mont.)
  • Yellowtail Dam (Mont.)
  • Subject Terms :
  • Abortion--Law and legislation--Montana
  • Agriculture--Montana
  • Catholic men--Montana--Interviews
  • Coal leases--Montana
  • Coal mines and mining--Law and legislation--Montana
  • Coalbed methane
  • Coal--Taxation--Montana
  • Coal--Taxation--Wyoming
  • Constitutional conventions--Montana
  • Corporations--Political activity--Montana
  • Correctional institutions--Montana
  • Democracy--Montana--History
  • Deregulation--Montana
  • Elections--Montana
  • Elections--United States
  • Electric utilities--Deregulation--Montana
  • Electric utilities--Montana--History
  • Energy development--Law and legislation--Montana
  • Environmental law--Montana
  • Ex-legislators--Montana--Interviews
  • Finance, Public--Montana
  • Freedom of the press
  • Government and the press--Montana
  • Government, Resistance to--Montana--Garfield County
  • Governors--Montana
  • Governors--Montana--Election
  • Hostage negotiations--Montana
  • Hunting--Montana
  • Industrial relations--Montana
  • Journalism--Montana--History
  • Journalists--Montana
  • Labor unions--Political activity--Montana
  • Lawyers--Montana
  • Legislation--Montana--History
  • Legislative bodies--Montana
  • Legislators--Montana
  • Lieutenant governors--Montana
  • Lobbying--Montana
  • Lobbyists--Montana
  • Men--History--Interviews
  • Militia movements--Montana--Garfield County
  • Mines and mineral resources--Montana
  • Montana--Politics and government--20th century
  • Naval spouses--United States--Interviews
  • Officers' spouses--United States--Interviews
  • Political campaigns--Montana
  • Political campaigns--Montana--Butte
  • Political candidates--Montana--Interviews
  • Political science--Philosophy
  • Politicians--Montana
  • Sales tax--Law and legislation--Montana
  • Sales tax--Montana
  • Senators, United States Congress--Montana
  • Social action--Montana
  • Social movements--Montana
  • Tax assessment--Montana
  • Taxation--Montana
  • Term limits (Public office)--Montana
  • Wildlife management--Montana
  • Women environmentalists--Montana--Interviews
  • Women legislators--Montana--Interviews
  • Women political activists--Montana--Interviews
  • Women--History--Interviews
  • Women--Political activity--Montana
  • Women--United States--Interviews
  • Working class--Political activity--Montana
  • Form or Genre Terms :
  • Interviews--Montana
  • Oral histories--Montana
    • Other Creators :
    • Brown, Bob, 1947 Dec. 11- , interviewer  ( interviewer)

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