The U.S. Congress passed legislation creating a Federal Naval Reserve
on March 3, 1915, after lobbying by Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels for
funding for a official federal reserve force. On August 29, 1916, under
pressure to enter the conflict raging in Europe and confronted with the problem
of manning a large navy, Congress passed the Naval Reserve Force Act, formally
organizing the Naval Reserve Force.
State naval militias had already been functioning as a naval reserve.
Since the newly created naval reserve force had yet to enroll any members, the
Naval Reserve Force Act also created a second organization, the National Naval
Volunteers (NNV). Naval militiamen could join this group, then transfer from
the NNV into the federal naval reserve, thus eliminating any problem of federal
control over state troops.
Women were also recruited into the Naval Reserve Force. Shore stations
were in dire need of clerical assistance, usually performed by men who were now
needed for service elsewhere. In March 1917, after determining from his legal
advisors that no law specified the gender of a yeomen, Secretary Daniels
approved the enrollment of female yeomen in the Naval Reserves, to perform
clerical and other duties on shore.
In 1917, a committee from the University of Washington offered campus
facilities to the United States Navy, which decided to build a temporary Naval
Training Station on campus grounds along Portage Bay on Lake Union (near the
area now occupied by the UW Health Sciences Center). The station was
established on August 1, 1917, largely through the efforts of Navy Commander
Miller Freeman. The training camp was comprised of Washington and Oregon state
naval militia, about half of whom were college students and graduates from
University of Washington, Washington State College and Oregon colleges. Before
the camp closed in 1919, over 5,000 men had been trained there for both naval
and naval aviation units. Female yeomen, referred to as "yeomanettes" by naval
officers, also trained at the station, though the women were not permitted to
live on the grounds of the Station.
The collection consists of three photograph albums documenting the
buildings and grounds, people, and activities at the U.S. Naval Training
Station on the University of Washington campus, 1917-1918. One album consists
of posed photographs of cadets and officers, and images of buildings and
grounds, most by Webster & Stevens. A second album of panorama photographs
includes group portraits of cadets and officers; several groups are identified
as to unit or function. A third album includes a number of smaller format
snapshots, depicting male and female enlistees in more casual settings, as well
as several items of ephemera. This album seems to have belonged to a female
yeoman, Anne Bathhurst.
The collection is open to the public by appointment.
Restrictions on Use :
The Museum of History & Industry is the owner of the materials in
the Sophie Frye Bass Library and makes available reproductions for research,
publication, and other uses. Written permission must be obtained from MOHAI
before any reproduction use. The museum does not necessarily hold copyright to
all of the materials in the collections. In some cases, permission for use may
require seeking additional authorization from the copyright owners.
Preferred Citation :
U.S. Naval Training Station at University of Washington photograph
albums, Museum of History & Industry, Seattle
Acquisition Information :
Found in collection.
Detailed Description of the Collection
The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in
1993.35.1: Album 1: U.S. Naval Training
photographs 7 x 9.5 inches
Includes views of the grounds, showing camp tents and building;
views of cadets in formation on the grounds; individual and group photographs
of cadets, female yeomen, and officers, including Commander Miller Freeman,
Admiral Robert E. Coontz, 13th Naval District Commander and Admiral Hugh
Delanty from Gray's Harbor; a crew team; and cadets working in various areas of
the camp, including the kitchen, laundry room, barbershop, store, mailroom,
storeroom, and shoe repair shop. The campus Varsity Boat Building is visible in
one photograph. Most of the photographs are by Webster & Stevens. One
photograph of a banquet is by Jacobs Photo Shop and several photographs are
unattributed, though are also possibly by Webster & Stevens.
1993.35.2: Album 2: Group portrait
photographs 7.5 x 18.5 inches
Photographs largely depict groups of cadets and officers at the
Naval Training Station posed in front of buildings and on grounds. Groups
include the Naval Radio Corps; a marching band; S.A.T.C. Unit Company 1; First,
Second, Fourth and Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Seaman Companies; the
Signal Corps; Chief Petty Officers, First Class; and an Officer Material School
group. Campus building depicted include Denny Hall, the Washington State
(now Burke) Museum (housed in the former Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition
Forestry Building) and the Chemistry Building (formerly the
Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition Fine Arts Building).
1993.35.3: Album 3: Snapshot album
262 photographs plus
ephemera 5 x 7 inches and
This album appears to be a personal photograph album, possibly
belonging to female yeoman Anne Bathhurst of Seattle. Bathhurst served as chief
yeoman at the Naval Training Station under Commander Miller Freeman at the U.S.
Naval Training Station on University of Washington campus. One of the first
women to volunteer, Bathhurst was active in the recruiting campaign at the
Station. The first section of the scrapbook consists of 69 5 x 7 inch
photographs, 2 per page and many by Webster & Stevens. These include images
sailing ships, buildings, including building construction, and tents, Girls
Victory Carnival parade. Many of the photographs portray cadets and officers,
some identified in handwriting on the photo: men pitching tents; football
players and games; boxers; a marching band; cadets at the store, playing pool,
and at the barber shop; and cadets and in their day-to-day activities. The next
section of the album consists of 5 x 7 and smaller photographs, many of them
snapshot type images of individuals, including officers and sailors from
Portland and Tacoma, ships. Towards the back of the album are 12 pages of
snapshots mostly of female yeomen The album also contains ephemera, including three 1918 copies of
"The Sub-Chaser," the newsletter of the U.S. Naval Training Camp, Seattle;
clippings; a Naval Training Station tag with Anne Bathhurst's name; Christmas
menu; typewritten poems and humorous notes; a booklet "Songs of the Soldiers
and Sailors"; a letter from Admiral Coontz to enlisted women of the U.S. Naval
Reserve Force, 13th Naval District delineating uniform regulations for women; a
humorous 1918 "memo" to NNV bugler Leonard Oliver listing :orders and
admonitions" regarding taking Anne Bathhurst out on a date; 3 medals, including
1 for a girls swimming victory at the Carnival on July 23, 1918; U.S. Naval
Reserve tie tack and ribbon; and calling cards Many of the individuals in the photos are identified by first name
only. Those identified by full name include: Miller Freeman, Hugh Delanty,
Herman Anderson, Ed Donnelly, Bernie Hodge, Captain D.A. Scott, Harry Thompson,
Ernest Bradford, Henry C. Allgood, Kate Wortman, Jim Mason, Ivan Lee, B.
Littell, Fred Heintz, John Cromwell, Len Oliver, Charles Noyes, Bob Lee, Mike
Nolan, and Roy Maryatt.
This collection is indexed under the following headings in the online
catalog. Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons, or
places should search the catalog using these headings.
Personal Names :
Corporate Names :
States. Naval Training Station (University of Washington)
Geographical Names :
Subject Terms :